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  • Author: Qiang Tao x
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Jiyong Deng, Qiang Tao, Dong Yan, Xianwei Huang and Yunfeng Liao

Abstract

Small molecules of ThQuTh, CzQuTh, CzQuCz and TPAQuCz were designed and synthesized, based on quinoxaline acceptor, and electron donating groups, i.e. alkyl-thioephene, carbazole and triphenylamine on both side chains and molecular backbones. Their thermal, optical and electrochemical properties were systematically compared and studied. The absorption spectra of the small molecules were strongly affected by the donor units attached to quinoxaline. Strong electron donating groups, such as carbazole on the molecular backbone would lower optical band gap, resulting in a wide absorption and the strong donor on the side chain would enhance the absorption intensity in short wavelength region. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels of the four molecules were up-shifted with increasing the electron donating properties of donor units. The bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells with a device structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/SMs:PC61BM/LiF/Al were fabricated, in which the small molecules functioned as donors while PC61BM as acceptor. Because the electron-donating ability of carbazole (Cz), triphenylamine (TPA) is higher than that of thiophene (Th), CzQuTh, CzQuCz and TPAQuCz show higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) than that of ThQuTh. Furthermore, being the strongest in absorption intensity and widest in absorption spectrum, TPAQuCz has the highest power conversion efficiency. Further improvement of the device efficiency by optimizing the device structure is currently under investigation

Open access

Tao Lan, Bao-chun Chen, Li-ping Fu, Zhi-juan Li, Xiang-jun Wu and Nai-qiang Cui

Abstract

Intestinal barrier dysfunction, facilitating translocation of bacteria and bacterial products, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of liver cirrhosis and its complications. Intestinal defense system including microbial barrier, immunologic barrier, mechanical barrier, chemical barrier, plays an important role in the maintenance of intestinal function. Under normal circumstances, the intestinal barrier can prevent intestinal bacteria through the intestinal wall from spreading to the body. Severe infection, trauma, shock, cirrhosis, malnutrition, immune suppression conditions, intestinal bacteria and endotoxin translocation, can lead to multiple organ dysfunction. The intestinal microflora is not only involved in the digestion of nutrients, but also in local immunity, forming a barrier against pathogenic microorganisms. The derangement of the gut microflora may lead to microbial translocation, defined as the passage of viable microorganisms or bacterial products from the intestinal lumen to the mesenteric lymph nodes and other extraintestinal sites. In patients with cirrhosis, primary and intestinal flora imbalance, intestinal bacterial overgrowth, intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction, endotoxemia is associated with weakened immunity.

Open access

Ya-Li Liu, Yao-Zhong Ding, Jun-Fei Dai, Bing Ma, Ji-Jun He, Wei-Min Ma, Jian-Liang Lv, Xiao-Yuan Ma, Yun-Wen Ou, Jun Wang, Yong-Sheng Liu, Hui-Yun Chang, Yong-Lu Wang, Qiang Zhang, Xiang-Tao Liu, Yong-Guang Zhang and Jie Zhang

Abstract

Introduction: The extremely high genetic variation and the continuously emerging variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) of Southern African Territory (SAT) serotypes including SAT1, SAT2, and SAT3 make it necessary to develop a new RT-PCR for general use for monitoring viruses based on the updated genome information.

Material and Methods: A FMDV SAT-D8 one-step RT-PCR was established based on the 1D2A2B genes of the SAT serotype viruses with a multiplex primer set. FMDV A, O, C, and Asia 1 serotypes, other vesicular disease viruses, inactivated SAT viruses, and 125 bovine, ovine, caprine and porcine tissue samples collected from the Chinese mainland were included for evaluating the assay.

Results: The new RT-PCR was proven to be specific without cross-reactions with Eurasian FMDV, swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV), Seneca valley virus (SVV), or other common viral pathogens of cattle, sheep, goat, and pig. An around 257 bp-sized amplicon clearly appeared when the inactivated SAT viruses were detected. However, all 125 samples collected from FMDV-susceptible animals from the Chinese mainland which has not known SAT epidemics showed negative results.

Conclusions: A FMDV SAT-D8 one-step RT-PCR is a promising method for primary screening for FMDV SAT serotypes.

Open access

Guo-liang Zhang, Jian-bo Ding, Shuang-jie Li, Xi Zhang, Yi Xu, Hua-sheng Yang, Dan Wei, Qin Li, Qing-sheng Shi, Qing-xiong Zhu, Tong Yang, Zi-qiang Zhuo, Yi-mei Tian, Hao-jie Zheng, Liu-ping Tang, Xin-ying Zou, Tao Wen and Xiu-hui Li

Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) combined with Western medicine in the treatment of patients with common hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) by conducting a prospective, controlled, and randomized trial.

Methods A total of 452 patients with common HFMD were randomly assigned to receive Western medicine alone (n = 220) or combined with TCM (Reduning or Xiyanping injections) (n = 232). The primary outcome was the incidence rate of rash/herpes disappearance within 5 days, while secondary outcomes included the incidence rate for fever, cough, lethargy, agitation, and vomiting clearance within 5 days.

Results The rash/herpes disappearance rate was 45.5% (100/220) in Western medicine therapy group, and 67.2% (156/232) in TCM and Western medicine combined therapy group, with significant difference (P < 0.001). Moreover, TCM remarkably increased the incidence rate of secondary disappearance, which was 56.4% in Western medicine therapy group and 71.4% in TCM and Western medicine combined therapy group (P = 0.001). No drug-related adverse events were observed.

Conclusions It’s suggested that the integrative TCM and Western medicine therapy achieved a better therapeutic efficacy. TCM may become an important complementary therapy on relieving the symptoms of HFMD.