This study is to investigate the role of the coating of TiO2 nanoparticles deposited on wool fibers against high-intensity ultraviolet B (UVB), ultraviolet A (UVA), and visible light irradiation. The properties of tensile and yellowness and whiteness indices of irradiated TiO2-coated wool fibers are measured. The changes of TiO2-coated wool fibers in optical property, thermal stability, surface morphology, composition, molecular structure, crystallinity, and orientation degree are characterized using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electronic microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. Experimental results show that the tensile properties of anatase TiO2-coated wool fibers can be degraded under the high-intensity UVB, UVA, and visible light irradiation for a certain time, resulting in the loss of the postyield region of stress–strain curve for wool fibers. The coating of TiO2 nanoparticles makes a certain contribution to the tensile property, yellowness and whiteness indices, thermal stability, and surface morphology of wool fibers against high-intensity UVB, UVA, and visible light irradiation. The high-intensity UVB, UVA, and visible light can result in the photo-oxidation deterioration of the secondary structure of TiO2-coated wool fibers to a more or less degree. Meanwhile, the crystallinity and orientation degree of TiO2 coated wool fibers decrease too.
Objective The clinical significance of differential distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) nucleocapsid antigen in hepatocytes remains unknown. The goal of this study is to determine the relationship between distinct HBV core antigen distribution pattern and alanine transaminase (ALT), liver histological inflammatory activity grades, serum HBeAg status and HBV DNA level.
Methods Total of 958 cases with chronic hepatitis B were recruited into this study. Liver function tests, serum HBV DNA level, serological HBV markers and liver immunohistochemistry were examined according to the conventional instructions. Chi Square tests were performed to analyze the differences among these groups.
Results It was found that 552 (58%) cases were tested positive for HBV core antigen by immunohistochemical staining. Cytoplasmic hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) expression correlated with ALT level and serum HBV DNA and liver inflammatory activity scores, however, nuclear HBcAg expression in hepatocytes was associated with normal ALT level, lower liver inflammatory activity score and higher serum HBV DNA level and rate of HBeAg positivity. Both nuclear and cytoplasmic HBcAg expression in hepatocytes associated with a middle ALT level and liver inflammatory activity score, higher rate of serum detectable HBeAg and a higher HBV DNA level. However, undetectable core antigen was related to a lower ALT level and histological inflammatory activity grade, lower positive HBeAg rate and HBV DNA level.
Conclusions Undetectable liver HBcAg is associated with HBV clearance, ALT normalization and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion, and cytoplasmic HBcAg expression associated with higher hepatic inflammatory activity. However, nuclear HBcAg expression correlates with immune tolerance characterized with normal ALT and lower liver inflammatory activity, higher HBV replication level and higher rate of HBeAg positivity.