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Open access

Zhao Zhang, Yanhui Li, Qiuju Du and Qi Li

Abstract

Soybean curd is a very popular food containing high-quality protein, polyunsaturated fats, vitamins, minerals and other nutrients. This study aims to prepare porous soybean curd xerogels via a vacuum freeze drying method and uses them as adsorbents to remove congo red from aqueous solutions. The morphology and functional groups of the soybean curd xerogels were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. The adsorption properties of congo red onto the soybean curd xerogels were carried out through investigating the infl uencing experimental parameters such as the drying method, solution pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature. The results showed that the adsorption isotherm data were fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm. Adsorption kinetics of congo red onto the soybean curd followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔG0, ΔH0 and ΔS0, were also determined.

Open access

Chang-Tian Li, Yu Li, Qi-Jun Wang and Chang-Keun Sung

Taxol Production by Fusarium Arthrosporioides Isolated from Yew, Taxus Cuspidata

A taxol-producing endophyte was Fusarium arthrosporioides. As a novel taxol resource, a taxol-producing endophyte was successfully isolated from the yew tree, Taxus cuspidata Sieb. et Zucc. According to the morphological characterization and the ITS4-ITS5 sequences, the isolated endophytic fungus was identified as Fusarium arthrosporioides. Fermentation conditions for taxol production were optimized with the isolated strain (F-40) of F. arthrosporioides. The fungal taxol was analytically confirmed by TLC, RP-HPLC, LC-MS and NMR. F. arthrosporioides isolated from yew was found to produce taxol with a maximum yield of 131 μg/L. Precise methods were established for detecting the fungal taxol and its derivatives.

Open access

Ting-ao Shen, Hua-nan Li, Qi-xin Zhang and Ming Li

Abstract

The convergence rate and the continuous tracking precision are two main problems of the existing adaptive notch filter (ANF) for frequency tracking. To solve the problems, the frequency is detected by interpolation FFT at first, which aims to overcome the convergence rate of the ANF. Then, referring to the idea of negative feedback, an evaluation factor is designed to monitor the ANF parameters and realize continuously high frequency tracking accuracy. According to the principle, a novel adaptive frequency estimation algorithm based on interpolation FFT and improved ANF is put forward. Its basic idea, specific measures and implementation steps are described in detail. The proposed algorithm obtains a fast estimation of the signal frequency, higher accuracy and better universality qualities. Simulation results verified the superiority and validity of the proposed algorithm when compared with original algorithms.

Open access

Wang Hong, Qi-Sheng Liang, Lan-Ren Cheng, Xiao-Hong Li, Fu Wei, Wen-Tao Dai and Shi-Tong Li

Abstract

Background: Rocuronium is an alternative to succinylcholine for rapid tracheal intubation after major thermal injury and other forms of critical illness that cause denervation changes in skeletal muscle. Rocuronium may decrease the potencies of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants.

Objectives: Examine whether potency of rocuronium changed during the first month after denervation, and investigate the effects of skeletal muscle denervation on potency of rocuronium.

Methods: The denervation mouse model was developed to create denervated individual cells from the flexor digitorum brevis of the hindfoot. The skeletal muscle cells were examined at day 0 in the innervated control and days 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 in the denervation group. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the cells were activated with 30 M acetylcholine, alone or in combination with various concentrations of rocuronium. Currents were recorded with a whole-cell patch-clamp technique.

Results: Rocuronium reversibly inhibited acetylcholine-activated currents in a dose-dependent fashion at different times after denervation. The inhibition concentration for the half-maximal responses of rocuronium increased 1.2- (p >0.05), 1.8-, 2.8-, 2.3-, 2.1-, and 1.9-fold (p <0.01) at day 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after denervation, respectively, compared to that at day 0 after denervation.

Conclusion: Rocuronium dose required to achieve satisfactory clinical effects changed at different durations after skeletal muscle denervation.

Open access

Jun Cheng, Min Quan, Min Li, Shun-ai Liu and Qi Wang

Abstract

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) circulates in blood and replicates in the presence of quasispecies. During HBV replication, HBV DNA polymerase lacks fidelity and proofreading function partly because its exonuclease activity is either absent or deficient. Therefore, HBV genome is mutated with unusually high frequency. And these mutations can affect more than one open reading frame due to overlapping genes. Otherwise, natural substitutions, deletions or insertions involving the Cp/EN∥ locus in the X gene can significantly alter the extent of viral replication activity. Particular selection pressures such as host immune system and antiviral therapy readily select out escape mutants from this pre-existing quasispecies pool. Antiviral drug resistance in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) can be caused by the viral mutation frequency, the intrinsic mutability of the antiviral target site, the selective pressure exerted by the drug, the magnitude and rate of virus replication, the overall replication fitness of the mutant, the genetic barrier of the compound and the availability of replication space. Potent inhibition of HBV replication could be able to prevent the development of drug resistance because mutagenesis is replication dependent. Viral load may decline to a point where the continued production of quasispecies with the potential to resist new drug treatments no longer occurs, if viral replication can be suppressed for a sufficient length of time.

Open access

Jian Fan, Li Zhang, Qi long Wang and Hui Lin

Abstract

Background: Metastasis is responsible for most cancer-related death, and the metastatic spread of neoplastic cells may be related to the ability of migration and invasion. Chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) plays an important role in cutaneous melanoma and prostate cancer cells migration and invasion.

Objective: Investigate the specific role of the chemokine-ligand (CCR9-CCL25) axis in the development of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) metastasis.

Methods: Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR, western-blot, flow cytometry, migration, and invasion assays were used to examine the function of CCR9 in the NSCLC cells.

Results: CCR9 was highly expressed in NSCLC patient cancer tissue. In addition, in vitro migration and invasion studies on human bronchial epithelial cells of the BEAS-2B and human squamous lung cancer cell lines NCI-H157 showed that migration in response to the CCL25 was inhibited by CCR9 antibody.

Conclusion: CCR9 might play an important role in the migration and invasion of the NSCLC cells.

Open access

Jun Cheng, Min Quan, Min Li, Shun-ai Liu and Qi Wang

Abstract

Covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA of hepatitis B virus (HBV) existed in the nuclei of HBV infected hepatocytes with a half-life time of 14.3 years in a mathematic model. Viral protein feedback regulation in HBV life cycle to maintain vital viral replication is an important mechanism. Interleukin-6, epithelial growth factor, heme oxygenase-1, histones, and hepatocyte nuclear factors are demonstrated as the key regulators for HBV life cycle. CpG island structure and methylation status are involved in the regulation of HBV DNA replication. Nucleos(t)ide analogues are widely used in the clinical practice for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B patients, although no evidence indicating a direct inhibiton of HBV cccDNA. In the future, along with the study of HBV life cycle, new drugs including RNA interference technique, will pave the way to eliminate the HBV cccDNA from infected hepatocytes resulting final cure of chronic hepatitis B.