In the modern world of automation, biological signals, especially Electroencephalogram (EEG) and Electrocardiogram (ECG), are gaining wide attention as a source of biometric information. Earlier studies have shown that EEG and ECG show versatility with individuals and every individual has distinct EEG and ECG spectrum. EEG (which can be recorded from the scalp due to the effect of millions of neurons) may contain noise signals such as eye blink, eye movement, muscular movement, line noise, etc. Similarly, ECG may contain artifact like line noise, tremor artifacts, baseline wandering, etc. These noise signals are required to be separated from the EEG and ECG signals to obtain the accurate results. This paper proposes a technique for the removal of eye blink artifact from EEG and ECG signal using fixed point or FastICA algorithm of Independent Component Analysis (ICA). For validation, FastICA algorithm has been applied to synthetic signal prepared by adding random noise to the Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. FastICA algorithm separates the signal into two independent components, i.e. ECG pure and artifact signal. Similarly, the same algorithm has been applied to remove the artifacts (Electrooculogram or eye blink) from the EEG signal.
This paper studies an improved fractional order parallel control structure (FOPCS) for enhancing the robustness in an industrial control loop having a first order process with dead time along with its tuning aspects. Since inclusion of fractional order calculus also increase the number of parameters to be determined for a particular control loops, tuning becomes an essential task. Four different tuning methods are considered to optimize the gains of parallel control structure (PCS) and FOPCS. Integral of time weighted absolute error for servo and regulatory problems along with overshoot value have been considered for performance evaluation. Extensive simulation studies including change in setpoint and mismatch in processmodel parameters have been carried out. On the basis of these studies, it was observed that FOPCS tuned by backtracking search algorithm, outperformed all other controllers in terms of considered performance measures.
In this paper, a new combination of Interleave division multiple access (IDMA) and spatial diversity offered by cooperative relay aided distributed beam forming is proposed. In the offered scheme communication strategy consists two steps. All users broadcast their message to relays in the first step and then relays amplifies and forward the information to the desired destination. IDMA, which is popular non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) technique is used to combat the effect of multiple access interference (MAI) at relay as well as destination nodes. Each relay processed the signal to maintain the QoS of destination. The goal of this work is to find the appropriate beam forming weights by minimising the transmit power and without compromising the QoS in terms of SINR. However power minimization is not the convex problem, so semi-definite relaxation is used to modify the problem in to semi-definite programming (SDP) problem and the conventional SDP problem solver CVX is used for solution. The numerical explanation and simulation experiment of the proposed scheme shows the performance improvements in terms of bit error rate.