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  • Author: Przemysław Tomalski x
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Developmental Trajectory of Audiovisual Speech Integration in Early Infancy. A Review of Studies Using the McGurk Paradigm

Abstract

Apart from their remarkable phonological skills young infants prior to their first birthday show ability to match the mouth articulation they see with the speech sounds they hear. They are able to detect the audiovisual conflict of speech and to selectively attend to articulating mouth depending on audiovisual congruency. Early audiovisual speech processing is an important aspect of language development, related not only to phonological knowledge, but also to language production during subsequent years. Th is article reviews recent experimental work delineating the complex developmental trajectory of audiovisual mismatch detection. Th e central issue is the role of age-related changes in visual scanning of audiovisual speech and the corresponding changes in neural signatures of audiovisual speech processing in the second half of the first year of life. Th is phenomenon is discussed in the context of recent theories of perceptual development and existing data on the neural organisation of the infant ‘social brain’.

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Seasonality Of The Basic Physical And Chemical Characteristics Of Water Flowing Through The Cascades Of Small Reservoirs In Urban And Suburban Areas

Abstract

The paper showed the changes of characteristics of river water flowing through the cascades of reservoirs. One of the cascades is located in a highly urbanized area of Lodz. The second is in a suburban area on the northern outskirts of Lodz agglomeration. However, it still remains under the influence of storm water discharged from the highway. Every 2 weeks, in 4 monitoring points (on the input and on the output of each cascade), the measurements of basic physical and chemical water parameters were made (using data registered in cross-sections obtained between 2006 and 2012). The analysed characteristics can be divided into three groups: 1. No changes in the seasonal fluctuations of analysed characteristics before and after the cascade of reservoirs and no differences between urban and suburban areas in the influence of the cascades on river water; 2. Significant changes in the seasonal fluctuations of analysed characteristics before and after the cascade of reservoirs and no differences between urban and suburban areas in the influence of the cascades on river water; 3. Significant changes in the seasonal fluctuations of analysed characteristics before and after the cascade of reservoirs and also significant differences between urban and suburban areas in the influence of the cascades on river water. The first group includes the temperature and pH of the water, the second group water conductivity and the third group water turbidity and dissolved oxygen in water.

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