The objective of the study was to determine role of soil sealing degree as the factor influencing soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The study area included four sampling sites located within the administrative boundaries of the Toruń city, Poland. Sampling procedure involved preparing soil pits representing three examples of soil sealing at each site: non-sealed soil as a control one (I) and two degrees of soil sealing: semi-pervious surface (II) and totally impervious surface (III). Together with basic properties defined with standard procedures (particle size distribution, pH, LOI, content of carbonates) content of selected PAHs was determined by dichloromethane extraction using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS). Obtained results show that urban soils in the city of Toruń are contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Soil sealing degree has a strong influence on the soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Totally sealed soils are better preserved from atmospheric pollution including PAHs. Combustion of grass/wood/coal was the main source of determined PAHs content in examined soils.
Marcin Świtoniak, Cezary Kabała and Przemysław Charzyński
The article presents proposed English translations of all names of soil units (orders, types and subtypes) listed by Polish Soils Classification, PSC (2011). The proposal has been elaborated based on the recent Polish and foreign literature, using uniform and consistent criteria. Due to the lack of soil names translation in the recent, fifth edition of PSC, the suggested English nomenclature was basically derived from the previous, fourth edition of PSC (1989). However, significant amendment and numerous additions to the latest version were proposed. A uniform and comprehensive system of soil taxa translations may help to avoid nomenclature chaos in the English papers of Polish authors, which intentionally base or refer to PSC.
Marcin Świtoniak, Dawid Augustyniak and Przemysław Charzyński
The aim of this paper is to assess the quality and correctness of information on Polish soils available on selected websites. Particular attention was paid to educational portals, which became the subject of evaluation of the information its contains in terms of the correctness, up-to-dateness and reliability. Twenty-five websites representing educational portals and blogs were selected for analysis in terms of their contents (type of subject matter) correctness (substantial value), curentness (presence of up-to-date information) and completeness. Most of the information on the evaluated educational portals is targeted at high school students. These websites present only basic content. The most frequent issues on the analyzed portals were: soil types and soil systematics, distribution of soils in Poland, definition of soil and also soil valuation classes. Websites addressed to university students constitute a decided minority, could be said, that even an exception. One of those is article on Wikipedia, which has the highest educational value among all analysed websites.
Cezary Kabała, Marcin Świtoniak and Przemysław Charzyński
The recent editions of the Polish Soil Classification (PSC) have supplied the correlation table with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB), which is the international soil classification most commonly used by Polish pedologists. However, the latest WRB edition (IUSS Working Group WRB 2015) has introduced significant changes and many of the former correlations became outdated. The current paper presents the closest equivalents of the soil orders, types and subtypes of the recent edition of the PSC (2011) and WRB (IUSS Working Group WRB 2015). The proposals can be used for general correlation of soil units on maps and in databases, and may support Polish soil scientists to establish the most appropriate equivalents for soils under study, as well as make PSC more available for an international society.
Przemysław Charzyński, Renata Bednarek, Andrzej Greinert, Piotr Hulisz and Łukasz Uzarowicz
Technosols are relatively young soil group in WRB soil system, and there is still a lot of to do to better understand processes taking place in these soils and to classify them in a proper way. The objectives of this paper were to (1) evaluate Technosol and 'technogenic' qualifiers for other Reference Soil Groups, and (2) propose new solutions which would improve the classification of technogenic soils in WRB. New qualifiers . Edific, Nekric, Misceric, Artefactic, Radioactivic and new specifier . Technic . are proposed to be added to keys to Technosols. Moreover, Salic and Sodic qualifiers should be also available for Technosols. Furthermore, the supplementation of definitions of thionic horizon and sulphidic material with reference to Technosols is also suggested
Cezary Kabała, Przemysław Charzyński, Jacek Chodorowski, Marek Drewnik, Bartłomiej Glina, Andrzej Greinert, Piotr Hulisz, Michał Jankowski, Jerzy Jonczak, Beata Łabaz, Andrzej Łachacz, Marian Marzec, Łukasz Mendyk, Przemysław Musiał, Łukasz Musielok, Bożena Smreczak, Paweł Sowiński, Marcin Świtoniak, Łukasz Uzarowicz and Jarosław Waroszewski
The sixth edition of the Polish Soil Classification (SGP6) aims to maintain soil classification in Poland as a modern scientific system that reflects current scientific knowledge, understanding of soil functions and the practical requirements of society. SGP6 continues the tradition of previous editions elaborated upon by the Soil Science Society of Poland in consistent application of quantitatively characterized diagnostic horizons, properties and materials; however, clearly referring to soil genesis. The present need to involve and name the soils created or naturally developed under increasing human impact has led to modernization of the soil definition. Thus, in SGP6, soil is defined as the surface part of the lithosphere or the accumulation of mineral and organic materials permanently connected to the lithosphere (through buildings or permanent constructions), coming from weathering or accumulation processes, originated naturally or anthropogenically, subject to transformation under the influence of soil-forming factors, and able to supply living organisms with water and nutrients. SGP6 distinguishes three hierarchical categories: soil order (nine in total), soil type (basic classification unit; 30 in total) and soil subtype (183 units derived from 62 unique definitions; listed hierarchically, separately in each soil type), supplemented by three non-hierarchical categories: soil variety (additional pedogenic or lithogenic features), soil genus (lithology/parent material) and soil species (soil texture). Non-hierarchical units have universal definitions that allow their application in various orders/types, if all defined requirements are met. The paper explains the principles, classification scheme and rules of SGP6, including the key to soil orders and types, explaining the relationships between diagnostic horizons, materials and properties distinguished in SGP6 and in the recent edition of WRB system as well as discussing the correlation of classification units between SGP6, WRB and Soil Taxonomy.