The discovery of an adaptive immune system especially in archae and bacteria, CRISPR/Cas has revolutionized the field of agriculture and served as a potential gene editing tool, producing great excitement to the molecular scientists for the improved genetic manipulations. CRISPR/Cas9 is a RNA guided endonuclease which is popular among its predecessors ZFN and TALEN’s. The utilities of CRISPR from its predecessors is the use of short RNA fragments to locate target and breaking the double strands which avoids the need of protein engineering, thus allowing time efficiency measure for gene editing. It is a simple, flexible and highly efficient programmable DNA cleavage system that can be modified for widespread applications like knocking out the genes, controlling transcription, modifying epigenomes, controlling genome-wide screens, modifying genes for disease and stress tolerance and imaging chromosomes. However, gene cargo delivery system, off target cutting and issues on the safety of living organisms imposes major challenge to this system. Several attempts have been done to rectify these challenges; using sgRNA design software, cas9 nickases and other mutants. Thus, further addressing these challenges may open the avenue for CRISPR/cas9 for addressing the agriculture related problems.
The research was conducted from January 2019 to June 2019 to study the fish production and marketing system in fish zone, Rupandehi. Altogether 95 respondents including 27 small farmers, 35 medium farmers and 33 large farmers were selected for household survey using simple random sampling for the study. Statistical tools, Ms- excel and SPSS of version 23 were used for data analysis. From the study, it was evident that, six species of carps of fingerlings size were stocked with high average number of common carps (3885.5/ha.) followed by silver carp (3880.5/ha). The average production of fish species was 6.06ton/ha which is slightly higher than the national average. The observed data revealed that, marketing of major quantity of fish was from on farm sale i.e. 55.78% followed by local market sale (18.94%), live fish sale in retailers (5.26%). Similarly, percentage of farmers selling fish to wholesaler, consumers, retailers and neighbours were 63.3%, 30.5%, 26.5% and 26.3% respectively. Cost and returns analysis showed average B/C ratio of 2.13. Problem ranking using 5 point scale value showed high cost of feed as the most serious problem with index value of 0.94 in the study area.