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Open access

Tanaporn Duangmala, Pagakrong Lumbiganon and Pope Kosalaraksa

Abstract

Background: Dengue virus infection has been a public health concern in Thailand. In the past decades, there has been recent interest concerning unusual clinical manifestations in both dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF).

Objective: We described the unusual clinical manifestations and outcomes of children with dengue admitted to a tertiary care hospital in northeast Thailand.

Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on the 73 patients with serologically confirmed dengue infection admitted to Srinagarind Hospital, a tertiary care facility in northeast Thailand between January 2007 and August 2011.

Results: Of the 73 children examined, 42 (57%) were boys and 31 were girls. Their age ranged from 8 months to 14 years (median 11 years). Nine patients developed neurological symptoms, 6 patients had altered consciousness, and 3 patients convulsion. Among 9 patients with neurological symptoms, 1 patient had acute kidney injury, 1 had hepatic failure, and 1 had kidney and liver involvement, mostly associated with fluid resuscitation or prolonged shock. Apart from neurological symptoms, one patient developed infection associated hemophagocytic syndrome and was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin. Two patients died from multiple organ failure, and 1 patient was brought back home in a moribund condition. The other patients recovered completely.

Conclusion: Altered consciousness was the most commonly observed unusual neurological manifestation. Patients who did not develop acute kidney injury or liver failure had mild clinical courses and recovered from neurological symptoms without sequelae. Acute kidney injury was associated with fluid overload and/or prolonged shock. Careful fluid management and close monitoring for complications resulted in favorable outcomes.

Open access

Patricia Izurieta, Pope Kosalaraksa, Louise Frenette, Mamadou Dramé, Bruce L. Innis, David W Vaughn and Anne Schuind

Abstract

Background

Human cases of highly pathogenic avian-origin influenza A/H5N1 infection continue to be reported to the World Health Organization, and recent outbreaks of human cases of other zoonotic influenza strains highlight the continued need for strategies to mitigate influenza pandemic potential.

Methods

A Phase II–III randomized, placebo-controlled, observer-blind trial was conducted to assess the immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of two 1.9 μg hemagglutinin doses of AS03B-adjuvanted H5N1 (AS03B-H5N1; A/Indonesia) vaccine in children (6 months to <18 years old) of Thailand, the United States, and Canada (Year 1, published elsewhere). After database lock in Year 1, the trial was unblinded, and children who had been randomized to receive placebo and continued to fulfill the eligibility criteria were invited to participate in an open-label, one-way, crossover safety extension phase, in which they received AS03B-H5N1 vaccine. Here we report the safety analysis in Year 2.

Results

A total of 155 children were vaccinated in Year 2. The most frequent solicited adverse event (AE) during 7 days post vaccination was injection site pain. Irritability or fussiness was reported in about one-third of younger children (aged <6 years) during 7 days post vaccination and was the most common solicited general AE in this age group. Postvaccination temperature (≥38°C) was reported in 4 (5.1%) children. The most common solicited general AEs in older children (aged ≥6 years) were muscle aches, headache, and fatigue. The AS03B-H5N1 vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile up to 385 days post vaccination.

Conclusions

Safety in the crossover phase was acceptable and consistent with that observed in vaccine recipients in the randomized, blinded phase of the study.

Clinical trial registration

ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01310413.

Open access

Pagakrong Lumbiganon, Pope Kosalaraksa, Torsak Bunupuradah, David Boettiger, Vonthanak Saphonn, Khanh H Truong, Nia Kurniati, Rawiwan Hansudewechakul, Viet C. Do, Tavitiya Sudjaritruk, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Nantakar Kongstan, Nik K. N. Yusoff, Lam V. Nguyen, Dewi K. Wati, Kamarul Razali, Annette H. Sohn and Azar Kariminia

Abstract

Background

Severe anemia is common among children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The choice of antiretroviral (ART) regimen needs careful consideration. No information is available regarding the initial ART regimens used in the Asia-Pacific region and the rate of switch of ART regimens in HIV-infected children with severe anemia.

Objectives

To study the initial ART regimens and the rate of switch of ART regimens used during the first 36 months in HIV-infected children with severe anemia and to evaluate their clinical and laboratory outcomes.

Methods

We analyzed regional cohort data of 130 Asian children aged <18 years with baseline severe anemia (hemoglobin <7.5 g/dl) who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) between January 2003 and September 2013.

Results

At ART initiation, median age was 3.5 years old (interquartile range (IQR) 1.7 to 6.3) and median hemoglobin was 6.7 g/dL (IQR 5.9-7.1, range 3.0-7.4). Initial ART regimens included stavudine (85.4%), zidovudine (13.8%), and abacavir (0.8%). In 81 children with available hemoglobin data after 6 months of ART, 90% recovered from severe anemia with a median hemoglobin of 10.7 g/dL (IQR 9.6-11.7, range 4.4-13.5). Those starting AZT-based ART had a mortality rate of 10.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.8-23.9) per 100 patient-years compared to 2.7 (95% CI 1.6-4.6) per 100 patient-years among those who started d4T-based ART.

Conclusion

With the phase-out of stavudine, age-appropriate non-zidovudine options are needed for younger Asian children with severe anemia.