The objective of this study was to examine the conceptual model and to study the relationships between customer perceptions of the benefits of sales promotion, quality, adequacy of premium, and adequacy of information about the coverage of insurance services. The research model was tested with structural equation modeling (SEM) with a sample of 200 Slovenian users of insurance services. The results indicated that higher perceived benefits of sales promotion were associated with higher perceived quality of insurance services. In addition, higher perceived quality was associated with higher perceived adequacy of information about the coverage and the premium for insurance services. The study also found that higher perceived adequacy of premium was associated with higher perceived adequacy of information about the coverage of insurance services.
Image has become one of the most important factors of stores’ survival and development. In this paper, a model of relationships among the multidimensional variables of store image, positive affect, satisfaction with the store, trust and commitment to the store is formed and tested with a sample of 209 customers in three stores in the Pomurje region of Slovenia. The important conclusion of the research is that several interrelations among store image, positive affect, satisfaction, trust and store commitment exist. The results also show significant gender differences in perceptions of store image. These results provide several important insights for managing supermarkets in the Slovenian market and are also important for future research.
Background and Purpose: An increasing number of insurance companies and the intensity of competition in this field require research on customer perceptions of the components of insurance services and insurance company. The objective of this study was to examine the conceptual model and to study the relationships between customer perceptions of the innovation, reputation, adequacy of premium, and adequacy of information about the coverage of insurance services.
Design/Methodology/Approach: The research model was tested with structural equation modelling (SEM) with a sample of 200 Slovenian users of insurance services.
Results: The results indicated that higher perceived innovation of insurance company was associated with higher perceived reputation of insurance company. In addition, higher perceived reputation of insurance company was associated with higher perceived adequacy of information about the coverage and the premium for insurance services. The study also found that higher perceived adequacy of premium was associated with higher perceived adequacy of information about the coverage of insurance services.
Conclusion: The original contribution of this article is also the highlighting of relationship between perceived reputation of insurance company, perceived adequacy of information about the insurance premium and perceived adequacy of information about the coverage of insurance services.
Marjeta Zorin Bukovšek, Borut Bratina and Polona Tominc
In Slovenia, many companies try to avoid bankruptcy with the introduction of a compulsory settlement procedure, but only a handful of companies successfully complete the compulsory settlement in the sense of a final repayment of creditors in accordance with the adopted financial restructuring plan. The article identified the factors affecting the confirmation of a compulsory settlement as well as the factors affecting the final repayment of creditors and, thus, permanently eliminated the causes of insolvency. The factors were divided into internal and external, whereby the impact of factors on a successfully completed compulsory settlement was verified using quantitative and qualitative research methods.
In this paper, that is a country study of Slovenia, we tried to determine why individuals in rural residential areas are less likely to recognize entrepreneurial opportunities. Our results show that the increase in resources in human capital, consisting of education, skills, knowledge, and experiences in entrepreneurship, has a significant and positive effect on opportunity identification. For policy creators, our results suggest that policies focused on entrepreneurial education- especially education that would enable the acquisition of real-life entrepreneurial experiences and skills-are useful, especially in rural areas.
Background and Purpose: Information solutions for analytical customer relationship management CRM (aCRM IS) that include the use of analytical tools are becoming increasingly important, due organizations’ need for knowledge of their customers and the ability to manage big data. The objective of the research is, therefore, to determine how the organizations’ orientations (process, innovation, and technology) as critical organizational factors affect the attitude towards the use of the analytical tools of aCRM IS.
Design/Methodology/Approach: To measure the orientation of the organization (process, innovation, and technology), we redesigned the existing scale, which was validated using exploratory factor analysis. In the next phase, we created a model by which we examined the impact of the organization’s stance in relation to the use of the analytical tools of aCRM IS, where we used multiple regression analysis. The model was verified on a sample of Slovenian Organizations (n=105), which use the analytical tools of aCRM IS for analyzing the data they have on their customers and business partners.
Results: In the study we found that all critical factors of the organization, specifically process, technology, and innovation orientation, have a positive impact on the attitudes towards using the analytical tools of aCRM IS. Innovation orientation is particularly important and has the strongest influence on the attitude towards using the analytical tools of aCRM IS. We found that innovation orientation on new ideas, methods, and approaches has the strongest effect, followed by the impact of innovation orientation on acceptance of novelty.
Conclusion: The more innovation-, technology-, and process-oriented organizations are, the more positive their attitude towards using the analytical tools of aCRM IS. The study is particularly important for organizations that are introducing an aCRM IS into their business system.
Background and Purpose: This research aims to achieve two main objectives: to investigate differences between male and female managers regarding the perceived gender equality in organizations and to analyze the gender differences in relationships among the perceived gender equality, the perceived satisfaction with employment position and career, the perceived satisfaction with work, and the perceived work-family conflict.
Design/Methodology/Approach: The sample of research includes 82 managers in Slovenian organizations. In first stage, we analyzed with t-test differences between male and female regarding perceived gender equality in decision-making positions. In the next step we developed the conceptual models and used structural equational modeling (SEM), and analyzed differences between constructs in two conceptual models.
Results: The research results show that female managers perceive gender equality in organizations in general to be significantly lower than males; furthermore, perceived gender equality is positively related to the perceived satisfaction with employment position and career as well as to the perceived satisfaction with work, but both relationships are significantly stronger for female managers. On the other hand female managers seems to cope more efficiently with the perceived work-family conflict since it has significantly different impact on female managers’ perceived satisfaction with work, as compared to the male managers.
Conclusion: To achieve more gender equality within organizations and a reduction of the gender gap, the legislative initiatives cannot be successful without appropriate corporate strategy sets, which presents the framework for doing business and determines the internal working culture. The findings offer several policy, as well as business practice-oriented implications.
Maja Rožman, Anastasiia Grinkevich and Polona Tominc
Background and Purpose: Age diverse employees are faced with different types of occupational stress and different symptoms of burnout when carrying out their work. Therefore, the role of age in job design and implementation of work should not be ignored. The main aim of this paper is to investigate the age differences of occupational stress and symptoms of burnout of employees and to analyze the impact of occupational stress, symptoms of burnout and age on employees’ work satisfaction.
Methodology: The paper is based on research that includes a survey of employees in two age groups: younger employees under 50 years of age and older employees between 50 to 65 years of age. Factor analysis was used to form the constructs of occupational stress, symptoms of burnout and employees’ work satisfaction. The non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to test differences in the obtained constructs of occupational stress and symptoms of burnout in the workplace between two independent groups. The multiple regression analysis was used to examine the impact of occupational stress, symptoms of burnout and age on employees’ work satisfaction.
Results: The results show there are statistically significant differences in occupational stress and symptoms of burnout in the workplace between older and younger employees. On average, younger employees perceived higher levels of occupational stress and burnout as compared to the older group. Research results also show that occupational stress, behavioral symptoms and emotional symptoms of burnout, as well as age, have a significant impact on employees’ work satisfaction.
Conclusion: Managing diversity requires a strategic approach to managing people at work. Therefore, this research adds to the body of knowledge by pointing out the relationship between age and occupational stress and burnout symptoms. Because the role of age in job design has largely been ignored, these relationships have not been studied enough.
In light of globalization and modern business, companies are typically exposed to challenges caused by unpredictable and complex competitive environments. The business environment, with global trends and stringent competition in the world market, now faces significant changes that companies should introduce into their current business operations. Among them, the human resource management of knowledge employees has become extremely important. The main aim of this article is to establish the impact of components of knowledge management on work engagement of employees in Slovenian companies. In the empirical part of the research, a sample of 112 Slovenian companies was obtained. Senior managers of companies and their employees were surveyed, using the questionnaire developed based on existing measurement scales. The results will help us to better understand the importance of knowledge management in Slovenian companies and its importance as a business strategy that must be fully integrated within all of the employees’ related processes of the company.
The existing empirical research into the association between intellectual capital disclosures by organisations and the cost of debt is scarce or is based solely on the samples of the (large) listed organisations. Since agency issues between management/owners and lenders exist also in (large) private organisations whose financing is greatly dependent on loans and whose audited annual reports can be a source of additional information for external users, we performed an empirical research to find the answer to the question whether the level of intellectual capital disclosure (as a whole and of its sub-categories) of organisations is associated with the cost of their debt capital. Our study was performed on a sample of private Slovenian organisations with audited annual reports. The results of our research did not reveal that lenders would take into account intellectual capital disclosures by Slovenian private audited organisations as the information about the potential for their future cash flows when deciding on the cost of debt issued to these organisations.