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  • Author: Piyawat Komolmit x
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Open access

Sombat Treeprasertsuk, Piyawat Komolmit and Wiriya Tanyaowalak

Abstract

Background: Hypoadiponectinemia and hyperleptinemia, and reductions in the ratio of adiponectin to leptin (A/L ratio) are associated with the development of hepatic necroinflammation in nonalcoholic fatty liver, but the association of the adipokines with hepatic steatosis in chronic viral hepatitis is unclear.

Objective: To investigate the relationship between serum A/L ratio, insulin resistance, degree of hepatic steatosis, and necroinflammation in patients with chronic viral hepatitis.

Methods: We measured serum adiponectin, leptin, and resistin levels, insulin resistance, and analyzed the association between liver histopathology and the level of the adipokines in 44 patients with chronic viral hepatitis before they started treatment.

Results: We found that insulin resistance, leptin, and resistin levels tended to increase in the group with a greater degree of hepatic steatosis and necroinflammation, but that the increase was not significant. The adiponectin/leptin ratio (A/L ratio) in a group with a low degree of hepatic steatosis was significantly higher than it was in the group with a high degree of hepatic steatosis (3.1 ± 3.1 vs 1.2 ± 0.8; P = 0.008). The A/L ratio in a group with low histological activity index (HAI) scores was significantly higher than in the group with high HAI scores (3.7 ± 3.4 vs 1.1 ± 1.1; P = 0.006). Abdominal obesity was the only variable that showed a significant association with the HAI score (P = 0.03).

Conclusion: The serum A/L ratio in patients with chronic viral hepatitis showed a significant inverse association with their degree of hepatic steatosis and necroinflammation.

Open access

Anoree Surawong, Ponlapat Rojnuckarin, Jumlong Juntiang, Benjaporn Akkawat, Piyawat Komolmit and Tanin Intragumtornchai

Abstract

Background: Bleeding is an important complication of cirrhosis. Currently, there is no coagulation test that can reliably predict clinical hemorrhage. However, previous studies demonstrated significant correlations between hyperfibrinolysis and following bleeding in advanced cirrhotic patients. Objectives: Estimate the prevalence of hyperfibrinolysis in cirrhotic patients at stable conditions and to assess its role in predicting subsequent hemorrhage. Methods: The prospective cohort study included 58 consecutive cirrhotic patients at the Liver Clinic, Chulalongkorn Hospital. Assays for liver functions, PT, APTT, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products (FDPs) and euglobulin lysis time (ELT) were performed at baseline. The subjects were followed-up for 10 months to observe clinical hemorrhage and survival. Results: The mean age was 56.4 years and 47% were male. The etiologies of liver diseases were virus (62.1%), alcohol (24.1%) or unknown (8.6%). Hyperfibrinolysis as reflected by ELT<120 minutes or FDPs>10 μg/mL was present in 32.8% and 74.1%, respectively. Fibrinolytic activity was significantly correlated with platelet counts and coagulation times, but not as much with liver function tests. By 10 months, 13 cases (22.4%) showed hemorrhagic episodes and 7 (12.1%) were expired, including 2 from bleeding. The significant predictors for death were Child class B or C, presence of ascites, hyperbilirubinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and prolonged APTT. However, none of the clinical, biochemical, or hemostatic factors was associated with clinical bleeding. Conclusion: Hyperfibrinolysis is common in cirrhotic outpatients. However, it cannot predict subsequent hemorrhage or survival. Novel hemostatic tests are required to assess the probability of bleeding in this disorder.

Open access

Sombat Treeprasertsuk, Panida Piyachaturawat, Tanassanee Soontornmanokul, Naruemon Wisedopas-Klaikaew, Piyawat Komolmit and Pisit Tangkijavanich

Abstract

Background

Liver biopsy is the criterion standard to assess liver fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is important for prognosis, whereas noninvasive scoring systems showing promise for predicting fibrotic status include aspartate/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio, BARD score, fibrosis–4-score (FIB-4), and the NAFLD Fibrosis Score (NFS).

Objectives

To determine the accuracy of noninvasive scoring systems to predict advanced fibrosis in Thai patients with NAFLD.

Methods

A prospective cross-sectional study of Thai patients with liver biopsy-proven NAFLD during January 2009-October 2012 at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. Baseline NFS, BARD, and FIB-4 calculations were used to distinguish patients with NAFLD with and without advanced liver fibrosis, using cutoffs for NFS ≥ -1.455, BARD ≥ 2, and FIB-4 >1.3 (http://gihep.com/calculators/hepatology/).

Results

We included 139 patients mean age 40.95 (SD 13.3) years (47% male). Impaired fasting glucose or diabetes mellitus was found in 75, 9 showed advanced fibrosis (≥F3) by liver histology. NFS with cutoff ≥ -1.455 was determined as the best system with the highest sensitivity for identifying patients with advanced fibrosis, followed by BARD ≥2, FIB-4 >1.45, and AST/ALT ratio >0.8. Liver biopsy could potentially be avoided in >38% of patients with BARD, 46% with NFS, 64% with AST/ALT ratio, and 81% with FIB-4.

Conclusions

Advanced fibrosis was prevalent in 6% of our Thai patients with NAFLD. NFS had the highest negative predictive value for excluding patients with advanced fibrosis. At least 38% of patients with NAFLD could avoid liver biopsy by using the BARD system.

Open access

Pakkapon Rattanachaisit, Paweena Susantitaphong, Kessarin Thanapirom, Roongruedee Chaiteerakij, Piyawat Komolmit, Pisit Tangkijvanich and Sombat Treeprasertsuk

Abstract

Background

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the major causes of chronic liver disease. The primary treatment of NAFLD by statins has not been clearly elucidated.

Objectives

To evaluate the effectiveness of statin use in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis on the change in liver histology.

Methods

We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for clinical trials and observational studies investigating the effects of statins on histological change regardless of type or dosage from inception to December 2015. Random-effect model meta-analyses were used to compute changes in outcomes of interest. The study protocol was registered in advance with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO 2016 CRD42016033132).

Results

We identified 6 studies (111 patients), representing 5 cohort studies and 1 randomized controlled clinical trial. There was significant decrease in steatosis grading with a standardized mean difference of –2.580 (95% confidence interval [CI] –4.623 to –0.536; P = 0.013) and NAFLD activity score standardized mean difference of –1.488 (95% CI –2.506 to –0.471; P = 0.004). However, there was no significant change in fibrosis stage (0.156; 95% CI –0.553 to 0.865; P = 0.667).

Conclusions

Statin use can possibly reduce the extent of steatohepatitis but not the stage of fibrosis. Further randomized controlled studies to assess histological evidence with adequate sample size and duration are required in order to establish the role of statin as a primary treatment of NAFLD.