It is possible to make analyses within the field of GIS applying cellular automata. One of the purposes of socio-economic geography is indirect understanding of the phenomenon by analyzing spatial patterns and inferring spatio-temporal processes looking rather for local hotspots. The cellular automata are the tool both for spatio-temporal inferring based on local conditions and data visualization. The evidence is the case study of spatial simulation of Warsaw Urban Area (Poland).
The author verifies the hypothesis that the present layout and extent of the Warsaw agglomeration determines further directions of the city’s spatial development. To this end, he employs a method based on cellular automata theory.
The dependency of land use and the neighbouring land cover patches is related to the existing neighbourhood or the predominant land use types in a given region, which stimulates further land changes of the lot being observed. Land use changes can be considered a complex and (to an extent) random process. The complexity of interactions means that the conventional deductive models are constrained, particularly in the case of the spatio-temporal phenomena, and implies the application of cellular automata to spatial research. Cellular automata are similar to the map algebra models in GIS. The concept of using neighbourhood coefficients in the analysis of land use changes is based on the combination of map algebra with two-dimensional cellular automata. The aims of this research included formulating the theoretical structure of neighbourhood coefficients, analysing their operationalization and testing their practical application. The verification of research and procedures included maps and statistics of simulations of land use changes in Poland.
Land use is defined as a spatial distribution of individual forms of land cover patches, utilised or not utilised by humans within the framework of mutual and spatial relationships. It refers to the functional character of a given terrain, and is also identified with a socio-economic description of the land surface. Changes in land use can be interpreted as a complex and, to some extent, a random process. These assumptions serve as a point of departure in an attempt to evaluate spatial and temporal differences in land use changes in the metropolitan areas of Poland, using the entropy formula. The analysis focuses on population development as a factor that impacts upon land use change. The approach proposed here allows us to study land use dynamics in detail, with the help of cartographic visualisation.
The development of information and communication technologies (ICTs) has significant economic and social impacts at both the global and regional level. Some of these implications have been perceived as positive and unexpected. While both the positive and negative social and economic impacts have been highlighted in the literature, opinions on these impacts remain ambiguous. Those aspects considered to be advantageous include faster communication, ease of use, development in the range of services and revenues, and an increase in individuals’ free time allowance. ICT penetrates all branches of the economy as a set of general purpose technologies. New information and communication technologies ease everyday life, serve as tools to help people in extreme situations, e.g. accidents, illnesses or natural disasters, and are also the pillars of contemporary entertainment media. The usefulness of ICT has been stressed and loudly disseminated to a large extent by the media. On the other hand, these new technologies sensitize society in quite new ways to the well-known natural hazards that people have encountered in the past.
The paper attempts to identify important factors significant for global information society development and to determine the significance of geospatial (geo-information) technologies. The starting point is international measures of the development level of information & communication technologies (ICT) and information society (IS). The relevance of the particular factors was defined using the general segmentation of the milieu, taking into account social, technological, economic, environmental, political, legal and ethical factors and also estimating the global spatial dimension of ICT and IS development. The diagnosis serves as the context of considerations concerning the contribution of geographers and cartographers to IS.
A Michelson interferometer based ESPI system for static and vibration out of plane displacement measurements is presented. The aim of the article is to demonstrate the usability of ESPI non-contact measurement method in the field of machining. The correlation fringe patterns were visualized using custom software. The accuracy of ESPI interferometer was verified by the comparison with measurement results collected using industrial XL-80 laser system. The efficacy in vibration analysis was tested by studying the mode shapes and resonant frequencies of the transverse vibrations of square plates. The measurement methodology was used to determine natural frequencies and the shapes of vibrational modes of NFTe 100x1.2/64-II circular slitting saw. As a result the values of rotational speed that should be avoided during machining were determined.