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Piotr Włodarczak

Abstract

The paper discusses the kurgan burial rites observed by communities inhabiting the eastern part of the Podolie Region in the second half of the 4th and first half of the 3rd millennia BC. The presented data concern finds from four areas: Yampil, Kamienka, Mocra, and Tymkove. The research made it possible to distinguish among the examined material assemblages linked with Late Eneolithic communities. They included graves of the Zhivolitovka-Volchansk type, burials in the extended position, as well as burials representing other cultural traditions (Nizhnaya Mikhailovka, Post-Stog). Materials attributed to the Yamnaya culture prevailed, and their analysis allowed us to trace changes in funeral rituals, reflected in the architecture of graves, arrangement of burials, and grave goods. Materials linked with the late phase of this cultural unit have not been recorded.

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Maciej Chyleński, Anna Juras, Danuta Żurkiewicz, Michał Jankowski and Piotr Włodarczak

Abstract

Ancient DNA was analyzed in altogether 28 Late Eneolithic and Bronze Age human skeletons form 4 sites in southern Ukraine. More than 0,3% of human DNA was preserved only in 13 skeletons. The results of our analyses provide evidence that recovery of DNA molecules suitable for genetic analyses is more dependent on the specificity of the archaeological site and is not strongly correlated with particular environmental factors.

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Tomasz Konopka, Anita Szczepanek, Marcin M. Przybyła and Piotr Włodarczak

Abstract

This study uses anthropological and forensic medical analyses to determine the cause of fractures found in the remains of 15 individuals buried at a site associated with the Globular Amphora Culture (2875-2670 BC). The intent was to determine the mechanism underlying the injuries and to indicate the types of tools that might have inflicted the blows. The fractures were diversified in their forms, but the majority of the injuries appear to have been inflicted by a flint axe, which is frequently found in graves of the Globular Amphora Culture. Apart from the forearm being severed in one of the victims, all the remaining skeletons showed from 1 to 4 injuries involving solely the skulls. The grave might contain victims attacked by invaders who executed the captives, or else the feature is ritual in character and it reflects the beliefs of the Neolithic community.

Open access

Viktor I. Klochko, Aleksander Kośko, Mykhailo V. Potupchyk, Piotr Włodarczak, Danuta Żurkiewicz and Svetlana V. Ivanova

Abstract

The paper presents the results of excavations and analytical studies regarding the taxonomic classification of a unique funeral site associated with the societies of early ‘barrow cultures’ of the north-western Black Sea Coast in the 4th-3rd millennium BC. The study discusses the ceremonial centres of the Tripolye culture-Gordineşti group, as well as Yamnaya and Catacomb cultures.

Open access

Svetlana V. Ivanova, Viktor I. Klochko, Aleksander Kośko, Marzena Szmyt, Gennadiy N. Toschev and Piotr Włodarczak

Abstract

The article presents the present state of research on the general issue of the Dniester Region of cultural contacts between communities settling the Baltic and Pontic drainage basins. Some five domains of research shall be brought to discussion in which it is possible to see fresh opportunities for archaeological study, on the basis of ‘Yampil studies’ on Dniester-Podolia (forest-steppe) barrow-culture ceremonial centres from the latter half of the 4th millennium and first half of the 3rd millennium BC. This relates to the peoples of the Eneolithic and the Early Bronze Age. In terms of topogenesis, embracing the Pontic-Tripolye, Yamnaya and Catacomb cultures, as well as Globular Amphora and Corded Ware in central prehistoric Europe.

Open access

Tomasz Goslar, Viktor I. Klochko, Aleksander Kośko, Piotr Włodarczak and Danuta Żurkiewicz

Abstract

The paper discusses the 2010-2015 studies of the radiocarbon chronology of Podolia ‘barrow cultures’ on the left bank of the middle Dniester. The studies have relied on series of 14C dates for the Klembivka 1, Pidlisivka 1, Porohy 3A and Prydnistryanske 1 sites determined in Kyiv and Poznań laboratories. They are the first attempt to construct a regional (‘Yampil’) radiocarbon scale for ‘Early Bronze’ funerary rites (4th/3rd-2nd millennium BC) as practised by barrow builders - the communities of the Tripolye and Yamnaya cultures - and the secondary barrow users - the designers of necropolises located on barrows - belonging to the Catacomb, Babyno and Noua cultures.

Open access

Tomasz Goslar, Michał Jankowski, Aleksander Kośko, Maria Lityńska-Zając, Piotr Włodarczak and Danuta Żurkiewicz

Abstract

The paper presents δ13C and δ15N isotope content measurements in human bones from 16 graves, being part of the Yampil Barrow Complex. From the results, conclusions may be drawn about the diet of barrow builders and users. It was based on vegetable foodstuffs and characterised by a varied share of terrestrial animal meat, depending on the period. High δ13C values suggest a share of C4-type plants in the diet, possibly millet.

Open access

Viktor I. Klochko, Aleksander Kośko, Serhiy M. Razumov, Piotr Włodarczak and Danuta Żurkiewicz

Abstract

The paper presents excavation results and analytical studies concerning the taxonomic classification of a funerary site identified with the communities of the ‘barrow cultures’ settling the north-western Black Sea Coast in the first half of the 3rd and the middle of the 2nd millennia BC. The study focuses on the ceremonial centres of the Eneolithic communities of the Babyno and Noua cultures.

Open access

Marcin M. Przybyła, Michał Podsiadło, Mykhailo V. Potupchyk, Piotr Włodarczak and Danuta Żurkiewicz

Abstract

The article presents the results of magnetometric surveys carried out in the village of Pridnistryanske on two barrow sites. In the site 1, the principal objectives were to capture the course of barrow ditches - not covered by the excavations - and investigate the space between the mounds. On site 2 relying on photographs was a group of nearby barrows selected for geophysical investigations.

Open access

Viktor I. Klochko, Aleksander Kośko, Serhiy M. Razumov, Piotr Włodarczak and Danuta Żurkiewicz

Abstract

The paper presents the results of excavations and analytical studies regarding the taxonomic classification of a funeral site associated with the societies of ‘barrow cultures’ of the north-western Black Sea Coast in the first half of the 3rd and the middle of the 2nd millennium BC. The study discusses the ceremonial centres of the Eneolithic, Yamnaya and Noua cultures.