The paper discusses the kurgan burial rites observed by communities inhabiting the eastern part of the Podolie Region in the second half of the 4th and first half of the 3rd millennia BC. The presented data concern finds from four areas: Yampil, Kamienka, Mocra, and Tymkove. The research made it possible to distinguish among the examined material assemblages linked with Late Eneolithic communities. They included graves of the Zhivolitovka-Volchansk type, burials in the extended position, as well as burials representing other cultural traditions (Nizhnaya Mikhailovka, Post-Stog). Materials attributed to the Yamnaya culture prevailed, and their analysis allowed us to trace changes in funeral rituals, reflected in the architecture of graves, arrangement of burials, and grave goods. Materials linked with the late phase of this cultural unit have not been recorded.
The research on archaeological materials from sites 11, 15, and 20 at Święte produced a series of 13 radiocarbon dates for niche graves of the Corded Ware culture (CWC). The results are coherent and point to a range of 2550-2350 BC. This corresponds well with other results obtained for nearby CWC cemeteries in the Rzeszów Foothills, and is consistent with dates obtained for CWC graves in other regions in Lesser Poland: the Lesser Poland Upland, the Sokal Ridge, and the Lublin Upland. At the same time, the obtained absolute age range corresponds with a wave of influences from the North Pontic circle of steppe cultures and the Middle Dnieper culture. It can be synchronized with the beginning of the development of the classic variants of the Catacomb culture: the Ingul and Doniec variants.
The Corded Ware culture (CWC) cemetery at site 15 in Święte, Radymno Commune, Jarosław District, was researched in 2010-2011 in the context of rescue excavations before the construction of the A4 motorway. Nine features were discovered, including six graves with a niche construction. An analysis of funerary rite traits and relics forming the grave inventory indicates that the above is linked with the later stage of the CWC development in Lesser Poland. Analogical materials are found in the neighbouring sites 11 and 20 in Święte and 7 in Skołoszów. On the basis of radiocarbon dating the chronology of the cemetery complex was defined to the period 2525-2380 BC. An interesting element of grave inventories is vessels analogous to finds from the Middle Dnieper and Catacomb cultures. These point to the ties of communities using the cemetery complex in Święte with those to the east of Lesser Poland – confirmed in the analysis conducted of stable isotopes of strontium.
This study explores a Subcarpathian assemblage of Corded Ware funeral materials as evidence obtained over the last decade, with a focus on their research value for studies of the transmission of civilization models embraced by Final Eneolithic/Early Bronze communities settling the border zone between eastern and western Europe. Results of studies on the correspondence among ceremonial traditions that existed in the area between the Dnieper and the Vistula in the third millennium BC are presented, with two stages of adaptation of Black Sea or ‘barrow’ thanatological belief systems by Corded Ware groups in Lesser Poland being highlighted. Chronometric determinations relating to the development of ceremonial centres of the Rzeszów Foothills (Szczytna) and Lower San Valley (Święte) in the context of ‘western intrusions’ of late Yamnaya and Catacomb cultures are considered significant, providing the date range of ca. 2550-2400 BC.
The rescue excavations at site 11 in Święte, Radymno Commune, Jarosław District, were conducted prior to the construction of the A4 motorway. Thirteen Corded Ware culture (CWC) features, including eleven graves, were discovered. The Final Eneolithic cemetery was placed in the neighbourhood of FBC graves, possibly at megalithic tombs. Most of the CWC graves have a niche construction – typical of the Lesser Poland funerary rite. The furnishings found in these features are characteristic of Subcarpathia as are inventories from nearby sites in the Lower San Valley and Rzeszów Foothills. Their typo-chronological assessments point to the younger phase of the CWC. Ceramic artefacts include vessels finding analogies in the assemblages of the Middle Dnieper culture and the cultures of the steppe/forest-steppe of the North-Western Black Sea Area. Among the latter is the spectacular find of a round-base pot from Feature 1149B. A series of five dates estimate the origins of the Święte cemetery graves at the interval of 2530-2375 BC.
Archaeological excavations at site 20, Święte, Radymno Commune, Jarosław District, were prompted by construction of the A4 motorway. Among the results the site has yielded there are two Corded Ware graves. Both of them are niche constructions datable to the younger Corded Ware phase in Małopolska. Accommodating three interments, grave 43 is particularly interesting for the re-use of its burial chamber and re-deposition of disarticulated older human remains. Grave goods within the graves are typical of the younger Corded Ware phase, with parallels found at closely located sites of the Lower San Valley and Rzeszów Foothills. The absolute date range for both graves has been determined to be ca. 2550-2400 BC.
Ancient DNA was analyzed in altogether 28 Late Eneolithic and Bronze Age human skeletons form 4 sites in southern Ukraine. More than 0,3% of human DNA was preserved only in 13 skeletons. The results of our analyses provide evidence that recovery of DNA molecules suitable for genetic analyses is more dependent on the specificity of the archaeological site and is not strongly correlated with particular environmental factors.
This study uses anthropological and forensic medical analyses to determine the cause of fractures found in the remains of 15 individuals buried at a site associated with the Globular Amphora Culture (2875-2670 BC). The intent was to determine the mechanism underlying the injuries and to indicate the types of tools that might have inflicted the blows. The fractures were diversified in their forms, but the majority of the injuries appear to have been inflicted by a flint axe, which is frequently found in graves of the Globular Amphora Culture. Apart from the forearm being severed in one of the victims, all the remaining skeletons showed from 1 to 4 injuries involving solely the skulls. The grave might contain victims attacked by invaders who executed the captives, or else the feature is ritual in character and it reflects the beliefs of the Neolithic community.
The paper presents excavation results and analytical studies concerning the taxonomic classification of a funerary site identified with the communities of the early ‘barrow cultures’ settling the north-western Black Sea Coast in the 4th/3rd-2nd millennium BC. The study focuses on the ceremonial centres of the Eneolithic, Yamnaya, Catacomb and Babyno cultures.
The article presents the present state of research on the general issue of the Dniester Region of cultural contacts between communities settling the Baltic and Pontic drainage basins. Some five domains of research shall be brought to discussion in which it is possible to see fresh opportunities for archaeological study, on the basis of ‘Yampil studies’ on Dniester-Podolia (forest-steppe) barrow-culture ceremonial centres from the latter half of the 4th millennium and first half of the 3rd millennium BC. This relates to the peoples of the Eneolithic and the Early Bronze Age. In terms of topogenesis, embracing the Pontic-Tripolye, Yamnaya and Catacomb cultures, as well as Globular Amphora and Corded Ware in central prehistoric Europe.