The development of cellulosic bioethanol and other second-generation (2G) biofuels has gone through various phases during the last few years. The prospect of technological breakthroughs stimulates extensive research on turning cellulose into bioethanol or biodiesel. Agricultural or forestry residues and some plants, referred to as ‘lignocellulosic energy crops’ or ‘second generation (2G) energy crops’ can provide feedstock for new types of biofuels. The impact of lignocellulosic energy crops on farmland birds has been relatively well studied. This is surprising since the technology of converting these crops into fuel has so recently been developed. However, we believe that some questions regarding potential bird use of 2G energy crops have still not been answered. In Europe, most research has been carried out in agricultural areas of Western Europe. However, Central & Eastern Europe host the highest densities of farmland birds and, in general, the highest biodiversity. There is huge potential for 2G energy cropping due to large areas of mainly marginal land. We have outlined possible discrepancies between the results obtained from W. Europe and potential relationships between birds and 2G energy crops in Central Europe.