This study discusses the ethical issue of the development of hearing technology in the form of cochlear implants that are used by an ever-growing number of deaf and hard of hearing people. The development of this kind of technology has progressed so quickly all over the world, including Poland, that the deafness paradigms have drastically changed. This may affect, to a greater or lesser degree, not only the implementation of early support programmes, but also the image of the Deaf communities using their respective sign languages on a daily basis. It is therefore necessary to create an eclectic model of education for deaf and hard of hearing people which would allow for the ethical option to integrate the conflicting approaches on the proper procedure for deciding on the language (spoken or signed) and the culture (the hearing or the Deaf one) for the development of deaf and hard of hearing students with cochlear implants or hearing aids.
Interactions of Deaf Preschoolers: A Comparison of the Communicative Behaviors of Deaf Children of Deaf Parents and of Deaf Children of Hearing Parents
This exploratory study examined the communicative behaviors of deaf children of deaf parents (DCDP) and of hearing parents (DCHP) by observing child-child dyads in free-play situations. DCDP-DCDP pairs were compared with DCHP-DCHP pairs. Dyadic peer interactions were recorded on videotape. The finding indicated that there were no differences between DCDP and DCHP connected with communicative competence from the point of view of Polish Sign Language (PJM). However, statistically significant differences were found between the two groups with regard to some basic additional categories of communicative behaviors and of pragmatically non-manual behaviors. For example, DCDP were much more likely to form communicative utterances categorized in reference to absent objects, events, and persons. The results of this study suggest a change in the program of educating deaf children, taking into account the positive role of sign language in their psychological development.
The main goal of this study is to identify the impact of firm size and its ownership on innovation cooperation in medium-high and high technology sectors in Poland between 2008-2013. The most open for innovation cooperation are large and foreign enterprises which mainly cooperate with foreign and national R&D units and universities.
This paper discusses the communicative competence of deaf children. It illustrates the process in which such children build narrative texts in interaction with a deaf teacher, and presents the diversity of this process due to the shared vs. non-shared perception of a picture - the source of the topic. Detailed analyses focus on the formal and semantic aspect of the stories, including the length of the text in sign language, the content selected, information categories, and types of answers to the teacher’s questions. This text is our contribution in memory of Professor Grace Wales Shugar, whose idea of dual agentivity of child-adult interaction inspired the research presented here.
The aim of this paper is to show shifts in the language development of deaf and hard of hearing children over the last 30 years. The paper presents an overview of Western and Polish studies on education and language development in deaf children in terms of psycholinguistics. Perceptions of the perceptual and cognitive capabilities of such children must be subject to revision and continual methodological reflection due to rapidly changing variables, such as technological progress, social and cultural conditions of primary socialization and the aims of deaf education. Now that an increasing number of deaf children undergo cochlear implantation, and digital hearing aids can provide 70-75 dB of gain, thus enabling the children to spontaneously develop speech, many of them function in a bimodal environment of the sign and the speech. However, they perform at different levels of educational and developmental success. This paper elucidates the issues of language flexibility in and heterogenization of children using hearing aids or implants on a daily basis.
The results of technological investigations in the scope of inkjet-printed flexible RFID antennas dedicated to UHF transponders and also problems with the application of nanomaterials are reported in this paper. The design of the antenna electrical circuit and the parameters of the inkjet printing process were elaborated on the basis of the numerical model prepared in the Mentor Graphics HyperLynx 3D EM software. The project evaluation was performed by measuring electrical parameters of the structures printed with silver-based conductive inks. The obtained results confirm coincidence between the model and its implementation in the inkjet printing technology. Finally, the prepared antenna has been applied in an RFID transponder of UHF band and the functional tests are also reported in this paper.