The sediments of two lakes located in the Baltic Uplands, the western part of the East European Plain (East Lithuania and North East Poland), were studied. Activity concentration of 210Pb was determined using two nuclear analytical techniques: determination of 210Pb in equilibrium with its beta emitting daughter 210Bi using liquid scintillation counter (LSC), and direct determination of 210Pb (and other radionuclides) by low-background gamma-ray spectrometer with a well type HPGe detector. For the 210Pb determination by LSC the methodology of lead separation based on the anion exchange resin in Cl– form (Eichrom) was used. Several steps of radiochemical procedures and respective parameters were investigated additionally. The optimized procedures for LSC method were used for case study with two lake cores. The activity concentration of 210Pb in lake sediment samples based on both nuclear analytical techniques (LSC and HPGe) were compared. 210Pb dating of cores was performed according to Constant Rate of 210Pb Supply (CRS) model with some modifications. Both techniques in the range of uncertainties gave similar results. From two considered lakes, the more eutrophic one exhibited higher sediment mass accumulation rate (MAR) values.
Sedimentological and geochemical research carried out in North- West Mazovia, central Poland, allowed the determination of landscape transformation in relation to the history of human settlement. The types of sediments subject to analysis included palaeochannel filling, accumulation on the river floodplain and colluvial deposits. The absolute ages of sediments and their sedimentological features allow the conclusion that the first response to human activity in the area is recorded in the overbank deposits in the Skrwa River valley as a result of the Wielbarska Culture in 200-300 AD. Subsequently, fan accumulation at the mouths of gullies started around the 12th-13th centuries AD. Frequent changes of sediment properties have been observed since the early Middle Ages. The subsequent anthropogenic impact on homogenous deposits is recorded in increased heavy metal concentration in vertical geological profiles.