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  • Author: Piotr Szulc x
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The aim of the study was to determine the effect of ultrasound gain level, chemical composition and histological structure of musculus longissimus dorsi on pre-slaughter ultrasound evaluation of intramuscular fat content in m.l.d. of beef bulls. The study was conducted on 217 young bulls of six breeds: Red Angus, Charolais, Hereford, Limousin, Salers, and beef type Simmental. Measurements were conducted with an ultrasound system Aloka SSD-500 at five gain levels (90, 85, 80, 75, 70). After slaughter the content of intramuscular fat, total protein, connective tissue and muscle fibre type and diameter of m.l.d. were determined. Ultrasound evaluation of the intramuscular fat depended on the actual intramuscular fat and the total protein content (P<0.01) in most of the measurements. The correlation between actual and ultrasound measurement of intramuscular fat content ranged from 0.2 to 0.36, and was highly significant for most of the ultrasound gain levels. There were highly significant (P<0.01) and significant (P<0.05) negative correlations between the total protein and ultrasound fat content (r = -0.17 to -0.31). The connective tissue percentage showed a significant effect on the ultrasound fat measurements at gains of 75 and 85. Ultrasound intramuscular fat content was positively correlated with the connective tissue in the m.l.d. at gain levels of 75 and 85 and the average ultrasound intramuscular fat measurement (r = 0.16, 0.20, 0.16). Highly significant and significant correlations between each ultrasound measurement were observed.


A field study was conducted at the Department of Agronomy of Poznań University of Life Sciences to determine the effect of the depth of NP fertilizer application in maize cultivation on the dynamics of initial maize growth, expressed in dry matter of a single plant at two juvenile maize stages. The adopted assumptions were verified on the basis of a four-year field experiment using four depths of NP fertilizer application, two nitrogen fertilizers and two nitrogen dose application dates. Thermal conditions in the early maize growing season had a significant effect on maize response to the depth of application of a phosphorus starting dose. Row fertilization (regardless of the depth of fertilizer application) was more effective than broadcast fertilization at both studied developmental stages.


The dry-cured necks and hams produced from the meat of Złotnicka Spotted (ZS) pigs and their crossbreds with Duroc and Polish Large White, were tested. The slaughter value of the fatteners was determined (lean meat content, backfat thickness, area of the loin cross-section). The water, fat, protein and NaCl content was established in the final products. The meat colour (L* a* b*) and pH were measured. The final products were subjected to sensory evaluation and ranked on the scale of 1-5 points. Crossing the Złotnicka Spotted with the PLW resulted in higher lean meat content by approx. 4 percentage points (p.p.) and in thinner back fat thickness by 0.6 cm. Dry-cured ham produced from the meat of different fattener groups did not differ significantly in terms of physico-chemical traits as well as sensory traits. The sensory characteristics of both ham and neck received high scores (on average above 4.5 points). It was found that the tested products differed in terms of chemical content. The dry-cured necks contained approx. 19.45% of fat in the group of the ZS × PLW crossbreds whereas in other groups this figure was 2 to 6 p.p. higher. The dry-cured ham that was produced was based on the meat of purebred pigs containing 3 to 4.6 p.p. less fat compared to the crossbreds with the Duroc. The research proved that crossing the ZS with PLW and Duroc did not make the quality of the dry-cured products deteriorate.


Introduction. The problem of health care affects every country. The structure and quality of hospitalization in Poland have changed over recent years. The state’s management of a balanced policy is possible prior to the collection of reports allowing to obtain data enabling assessment of changes in the health structure of the population, development of statistical data, as well as implementation and supervision of the National Health Program.

Aim. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of hospitalization basing on the patients’ assessment of the availability, conditions, course of treatment and contact with hospital staff in the city of Lublin.

Material and methods. The material for analysis was data collected from 254 patients. Respondents represented departments of diabetology, rehabilitation and internal diseases. The group consisted of 159 women and 95 men aged 19-84. The interview questionnaire was a research tool. Respondents were asked to assess: accessibility to hospital, efficiency of completing formalities when admitted to the hospital, cleanliness in the room, quality of the gastronomic services and contact with nursing and medical staff. Likert’s 5-point scale was used. Statistical analysis was performed using the software “STATISTICA 10.0”.

Results. Most respondents assessed the quality of hospitalization as satisfactory. As many as 99% of respondents assessed contact with doctors as good or very good. Contact with nursing staff was rated as good by 88% of respondents.

Conclusions. This study demonstrated good quality of health care in the examined hospital in Lublin. However, it is important to emphasize the need for further research aimed at collecting data on the presented problem.


Introduction: Rhodiola rosea (RR) and Rhodiola kirilowii (RK) are well known for their influence on central nervous system, however their impact on the development of alcohol tolerance has not yet been proven.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the ability of RR and RK roots extracts to inhibit the development of alcohol tolerance in vivo, both, peripheral (metabolic) and central ones.

Methods: Male Wistar rats were treated with RR and RK extracts (p.o.) and ethanol (i.p.) for ten consecutive days. On the first, third, fifth and eighth days the hypothermic action of ethanol was measured, while on the ninth day the loss of righting reflex was examined. On the tenth day rats were treated with assigned extract and sacrificed 1 h after the ethanol injection.

Results: Both extracts inhibited development of tolerance to the hypothermic action of ethanol. The observed effect seems to be specific since none of the extracts affected body temperature in water-treated animals. RK extract also prolonged the hypnotic action of ethanol. RR-treated rats had higher blood-ethanol concentrations, in contrast to RK ones.

Conclusions: RR and RK extracts inhibited the development of tolerance to the hypothermic action of ethanol. Prolongation of the hypnotic action of ethanol by RK extract may be associated with influence on the central nervous system, while the RR one also inhibited the development of metabolic tolerance.


Introduction: In recent years, the search for potential neuroprotective properties of salidroside and its ability to influence the activity of nervous system become the subject of intense studies of many research groups. None of these studies, however, include an attempt to determine the effect of salidroside on the course of alcohol tolerance in vivo.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of salidroside to inhibit the development of alcohol tolerance in rats, determining whether the effect of its action may occur in a dose-dependent manner, reducing both metabolic and central tolerance without affecting body temperature in control rats.

Methods: Male Wistar rats were injected daily with ethanol at a dose of 3 g/kg for 9 consecutive days to produce ethanol tolerance. Salidroside in two doses (4.5 mg/kg and 45 mg/kg b.w.) or vehiculum was administered orally. On the 1st, 3rd, 5th and 8th day a hypothermic effect of ethanol was measured, while the loss of righting reflex procedure was performed on the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 7th day. On the 9th day rats were treated with salidroside, sacrificed 1 h after ethanol injections and blood was collected for blood-ethanol concentration measurement.

Results: Salidroside at a dose of 45 mg/kg inhibited the development of tolerance to hypothermic and sedative effects of ethanol, whereas insignificant elevation of blood-ethanol concentration was observed. The dose of 4.5 mg/kg b.w. had minimal effect, only small inhibition of tolerance to hypothermic action was observed. Salidroside affected neither body mass growth nor body temperature in non-alcoholic (control) rats.

Conclusions: Results of the study indicate that salidroside at a dose of 45 mg/kg inhibited the development of tolerance to the hypothermic effect of ethanol. Observed inhibition of tolerance to the sedative effect of ethanol seems to be associated with salidroside influence on the central nervous system. A comprehensive explanation of the abovementioned observations requires further pharmacological and pharmacodynamic studies.


The aim of this paper is to present the comparison of three models applied to the analysis of a one-year study of protein yield for two types of hybrid maize cultivars under different forms of nitrogen fertilizer and doses of magnesium. The field trial was conducted in 2010 at the Agricultural Experimental Station in Swadzim (Poland). The results obtained were analyzed in terms of three randomization-derived models of observations. Consideration was given to three mixed systems, which are combinations of split-plot design, split-block design and randomized complete block design. The relative efficiency of the designs with respect to estimation of some comparisons among treatment combination effects was examined. Particular attention was paid to the interaction between cultivars and nitrogen fertilization.