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Piotr Sorokowski

Influence of Culture on Sports Achievements: The Case of Sprint Relay Teams from Japan, Brazil, the USA and Great Britain

Purpose. Research outside sport psychology indicates that collectivist cultures positively influence group achievements. Because of this results of sports teams from collectivist cultures should be better than those of their counterparts from individualist cultures. This hypothesis was examined in two studies. Basic procedures. (1) In study I, 15 coaches, using the IC Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI), enumerated characteristics that a perfect team member should possess. (2) In study II, individual results (achieved between 2001 and 2008) of four top Japanese and Brazilian athletes (collectivist cultures) and American and British (individualist cultures) were compared against the best 4 × 100 m relay results from these countries. Main findings. (1) In the coaches' opinion players of team sports should definitely be more collectivist than individualist in relation to the values professed. (2) In the context of athlete's potential, the Japanese and Brazilian relay teams achieved generally better results than their American and British counterparts. Conclusions. The obtained results show that collectivist cultures not only facilitate and favor the development of sports teams, but also enhance their performance.

Open access

Piotr Sorokowski and Andrzej Szmajke

The Influence of the "Red Win" Effect in Sports: A Hypothesis of Erroneous Perception of Opponents Dressed in Red - Preliminary Test

Purpose. Psychological research indicates that, in contact sports, the results of sports competitions might be influenced by the color of an athlete's uniform (especially the color red). However, previous research has not yet experimentally verified whether this hypothesis might be a consequence of perceptual distortion caused by moving objects of a certain color, such as red. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of an object's color on the efficiency of performing simple tasks in a basic computer game. Methods. 225 participants aged between 16 and 30 years played nine different "arcade" games of skill, differed by the rules and colors used in the game, where the subjects were tested on their ability to hit, escape from, or outmaneuver certain objects of a certain color (either blue, red or black). The score achieved was then correlated to what effect the color of the objects had on a subject's visual perception. Results. It was found that the study participants were able to hit red moving objects significantly better than blue and black objects. No difference was found in the ability to avoid elements, in all three colors. Conclusions. The obtained result finds that in some games of skill, the color of the used stimulus might significantly influence perceptual efficiency and, therefore, the results and performance of individuals. The results of our study suggest that future research is needed in investigating the meaning and role of colors, as this may be very important, in various sports. The colors used in sports equipment, uniforms, environment, etc., should be empirically verified if they can influence the results of sports competitions.

Open access

Piotr Sorokowski, Agnieszka Sabiniewicz and Sławomir Wacewicz

Abstract

In boxing, athletes choose between two strategies: the orthodox stance characteristic of right handed competitors, or the southpaw stance characteristic of left-handers. Despite a conviction popular among the practitioners of this sport that fighting against a southpaw opponent constitutes a handicap, the effectiveness of the type of stance has so far not been examined. We extracted the statistics of the top twenty active male professionals boxing in each of the seventeen weight divisions. Out of the 340 boxers who composed our group, 75% used the orthodox stance and 25% were southpaw. Generally, we found that boxing stance had no effect on the percentage of 340 top professional boxers’ victories. However, both the southpaw and the orthodox athletes had a higher percentage of victories against orthodox boxers than against southpaws.

Open access

Piotr Sorokowski, Andrzej Szmajke, Takeshi Hamamura, Feng Jiang and Agnieszka Sorokowska

Abstract

Although many studies have demonstrated an influence of uniform colors on sports performance, there are still more questions than answers regarding this issue. In our study, participants from Poland (N = 147) and China (N = 143) watched a two-minute video of a semi-professional boxing match. The participants viewed six different versions of the same fight - the original was modified to change the colors of the boxers’ trunks (red vs. blue, blue vs. red, blue vs. black, black vs. blue, red vs. black, and black vs. red). We experimentally confirmed that “black wins” and “red wins” effects exist, but in a way that caused an erroneous perception of the number of blows landed by boxers wearing red and black trunks fighting against boxers in blue trunks. We also showed that both effects are similarly strong even in Chinese culture, where the color red has different connotations from those in Western cultures. Additionally, our results suggest that context might play a very important role in the assessments of the boxers - color only influenced the perception of the weaker boxer. Finally, our findings suggest that the topic of the influence of colors on sports competitions has not been thoroughly investigated and further studies are necessary.

Open access

Piotr Sorokowski and Magdalena Wrembel

Abstract

Our article presents a comprehensive overview of studies on colour from the perspective of applied psychology and social sciences. It discusses major findings from the psychology of colour applied to marketing, business, politics and sports as well as to problems connected with using color tests in psychological diagnoses. Moreover, we present an overview of particularly interesting colour studies on synaesthesia related to cognitive and applied psychology as well as psycholinguistics. Finally, we discuss the most recent trends in investigations into applied colour psychology as well as potential directions for further research.