The duty of applying recorders in the road transport was implemented in states of the European Union on regulations (EWG) no. 3820 / 85 on harmonizations of some social welfare legislation referring to the transport, which was changing with regulation (EWG) no. 3821/85 on recorders applied in the road transport. The duty of implementation of the digital tachograph is also considered in the context of improving road safety. Through the analysis of the records of the registering devices can be defined in each specific case of speeding by more than the allowable value in the area. Technical requirements for your device recorded in the resolution, which defines the main parameters, are measured, among things other, the traversed path length of the car, speed, time driving, other periods of work, politeness of the driver and the correct operation of the check authorized for those authorities. At present led Regulation (EU) No 165/2014 of European Parliament establishing requirements concerning structure, checking, installation, use and repairs of tachographs and their building blocks is implementing the second generation of the digital tachographs connected with the device GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). Organizing the early detection from a distance is showing data officers from the digital tachograph and information concerning mass and mass falling on the wasp of the entire team of vehicles. Experience in work, economic pressures and competition in transport has led the drivers through a transport company in the event noncompliance, and in particular, in relation to the driving time and breaks. This article contains responsibilities after part rest on the drivers of vehicles takes the issues of system security and optimum performance of recording devices.
A preliminary study of the degradation of selected commercial packaging materials in compost and aqueous environments
The paper presents the results of the degradation of two commercial packaging materials CONS-PET and BioPlaneta in the compost and distilled water at 70°C. The materials containing polylactide (PLA), CONS-PET 13% and BioPlaneta 20%, aliphatic-aromatic copolyester terephthalic acid/adipic acid/1,4-butanediol (BTA) and commercial additives degraded under the industrial composting conditions (composting pile or container) and in distilled water at 70°C in the laboratory holding oven. Distilled water provided the conditions for the hydrolytic (abiotic) degradation of the materials. Weight loss, changes of molecular weight, dispersity monitored via the GPC technique and the macroscopic surface changes of the tested materials were monitored during the experiments. The investigated systems show similar trends of degradation, however on the last day of the incubation the decrease of the molecular weight was higher in water than under the industrial composting conditions. The results indicate that commercial packaging materials can be degraded both while composting ((bio)degradation) and during the incubation in distilled water at 70°C (abiotic hydrolysis).
Studies were conducted using a 10-chamber Micro-Oxymax (Columbus, OH, USA) respirometer to determine the effect of bioaugmentation, biostimulation and combination of them on enhancing intrinsic biodegradation of oil hydrocarbons in soil. Contaminated soil was collected from a former military airport in Kluczewo, Poland. Bioaugmentation was realized by addition of indigenous or exogenous bacteria to soil. Biostimulation was done by aerated water supply and surfactant addition. Bioaugmentation + addition of a surfactant was applied as the combined treatment. The intrinsic and enhanced hydrocarbons biodegradation rates were estimated from the slopes of linear regressions of cumulative curves of O2 uptake. Pertinent biodegradation rates were recalculated on the basis of the stoichiometric reaction (mass balance equation) and conversion equation. The results showed that combined treatment (indigenous bacteria bioaugmentation + addition of a surfactant) was the most effective method of biodegradation enhancement as the 20-fold increase of biodegradation rate was observed.
Ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest in various areas as new, non-volatile and non-flammable organic solvents, catalysts, reaction additives, ligands, drugs and other dedicated materials etc. Their general use, sometimes in bulky quantities, requires determination of their potential ecotoxicity on selected organisms. In the present work, influence of triphenylmethylphosphonium iodide (1) and triphenylhexadecylphosphonium iodide (2), introduced to soil, on germination and early stages of growth and development of superior plants was investigated using the plant growth test based on the OECD/OCDE 208/2006. In this test, the seeds of selected species, i.e. land superior plants - spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) and common radish (Raphanus sativus L. subvar. radicula Pers.) were planted in pots containing soil to which a test chemical compound had been added and in pots with control soil. To evaluate the phytotoxicity of ionic liquids 1 and 2 germination and weight (dry and fresh) of control plant seedlings were determined and compared with the germination and weight (dry and fresh) of the seedlings of plants grown in the soil watered with appropriate amounts of the test chemicals. The visual assessment of any types of damage to the test species, such as growth inhibition, chlorosis and necrosis, was also carried out and documented by digital photographs. Based on the obtained results, magnitudes of the LOEC - the lowest concentration causing observable effects in the form of reduction in growth and germination compared with the control and the NOEC - the highest concentration not causing observable, toxic effects - were also determined.