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  • Author: Piotr Roszak x
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The aim of this article is to show the use of the analysis of the failure causes and effects as a prevention tool in controlling the quality of a given production process in the company. The scope of the work covers an analysis of a selected process, definition of inconsistencies present in this process, and then the FMEA analysis. In the production company one should implement thinking and actions based on the so-called ‘quality loop’ – it is an interdependence model of the undertaken actions which affect the quality shaping. It is carried out from the possibility for identifying a customer’s requirements through a project, production process, up to the assessment of effective capability for meeting the defined requirements.

The application of such an approach enables to take the actions improving the operation of quality management in a systemic way.



The process of continuing education of paramedics is based on gaining educational credits during five-year educational periods. One of the forms of self-improvement are Internet-based educational programs. The lack of regulations concerning the organizational and technical aspects of e-learning made the authors attempt to analyze the phenomenon. The aim of the article is to present an initial analysis of the role of online educational programs in comparison with other forms of professional training of paramedics. One in three respondents has recently used one of the methods of distance learning. Despite the low awareness of the effectiveness of e-learning, almost 70% of the interviewees expressed a positive opinion about it and over 50% were willing to use such forms in the future. The respondents preferred online trainings in the asynchronous version, containing audio-visual materials and providing the possibility to obtain a certificate issued to the participant after completing the course. The demand for topics in the area of professional training included mainly the fields of Drug Therapy, electrotherapy, electrocardiogram (ECG) evaluation, medical segregation, and help in delivery in pre-hospital conditions. Modern forms of distance learning do not make it possible to acquire practical skills, yet their role in professional training of paramedics is still significant. According to the authors, online educational programs constitute an effective complement to traditional training through the performance of tasks in a mixed form, known as blended-learning.


Background. The objective of this study was: i) to compare the results of urine culture with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) -based detection of microorganisms using two commercially available kits, ii) to assess antimicrobial susceptibility of urine isolates from cancer patients to chosen antimicrobial drugs and, if necessary, to update the recommendation of empirical therapy.

Materials and methods. A one-year hospital-based prospective study has been conducted in Greater Poland Cancer Centre and Genetic Medicine Laboratory CBDNA Research Centre in 2011. Urine cultures and urine PCR assay from 72 patients were examined

Results. Urine cultures and urine PCR assay from 72 patients were examined. Urine samples were positive for 128 strains from which 95 (74%) were identical in both tests. The most frequently isolated bacteria in both culture and PCR assay were coliform organisms and Enterococcus spp. The Gram negative bacilli were most resistant to cotrimoxazol. 77.2% of these bacilli and 100% of E. faecalis and S. agalactiae were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. 4.7% of Gram positive cocci were resistant to nitrofurantoin.

Conclusions. The PCR method quickly finds the causative agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) and, therefore, it can help with making the choice of the proper antimicrobial therapy at an early stage. It appears to be a viable alternative to the recommendations made in general treatment guidelines, in cases where diversified sensitivity patterns of microorganisms have been found.