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Jakub Kenig, Piotr Richter and Marcin Barczyński


The umbilical area can present with a variety of signs associated with an intra abdominal malignancy. An umbilical/paraumbilical hernia might itself be a sign of an internal malignancy. The correlation between the presence of an umbilical/paraumbilical hernia and an intra abdominal malignancy has been previously based only on case reports. The aim of the study was to evaluate the significance of an umbilical/paraumbilical hernia as a symptom of an intraabdominal malignancy. Material and methods. A retrospective analysis was performed; review of the medical records of 145 patients (113 female and 32 male; mean age 66.4±11.9) with an umbilical/paraumbilical hernia treated during the period of 2005-2013. Twenty-three patients (15.9%) were diagnosed with an intra abdominal malignancy; 34% were in the age group over 75 years of age. Results. The most common malignancies were: colorectal cancer, followed by pancreatic cancer, and cancers of the adnexa and kidneys. The patients with a concomitant malignancy identified were significantly older than those without a malignancy. In 65% of patients, the diagnosis was made postoperatively. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that age, the presence of preoperative symptoms, anemia, and weight loss were independent risk factors for concomitant abdominal cancer. Conclusion. The findings of this study support intensive preoperative diagnostic evaluation of elderly patients that are qualified for surgery for an umbilical/paraumbilical hernia. This is particularly important because most of these patients had a small/medium hernia orifice, which did not allow for accurate manual abdominal exploration. Currently, the routine preoperative diagnostic evaluation is often insufficient for an accurate diagnosis

Open access

Piotr Richter, Jerzy Sałówka and Wojciech Nowak

Neuroanatomy of the Minor Pelvis-Significant Area in the Surgery of Rectal Carcinoma

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Aneta Zygulska, Adrian Wójcik, Piotr Richter and Katarzyna Krzesiwo

Renal Carcinoma Metachronous Metastases to the Gall-Bladder and Pancreas - Case Report

Renal carcinoma metastases to the gastrointestinal tract are seldom reported in medical literature. The study presented a case of a 76-year old female patient who underwent nephrectomy, due to T2N0M0 clear cell renal carcinoma and was additionally diagnosed with two metachronous metastases to the gall-bladder and pancreas. Abdominal ultrasound performed 32 months after nephrectomy demonstrated the presence of cholelithiasis and gall-bladder polyp. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. Clear cell renal carcinoma metastasis restricted to the gall-bladder mucosa was diagnosed on the basis of the histopathological examination. After surgery the patient remained under follow-up. In December, 2009 (47 months after nephrectomy) abdominal computer tomography (CT) revealed the presence of a tumor located in the tail of the pancreas. Distal pancreatic resection and splenectomy was performed. The histopathological examination confirmed the presence of clear cell renal carcinoma metastasis. The patient is in good general condition, under follow-up at the Oncological Outpatient Clinic.

Open access

Michał Romaniszyn, Piotr Richter, Piotr Walega, Jakub Kenig, Marcin Nowak and Wojciech Nowak

Low-Anterior-Resection Syndrome. How Does Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy and Low Resection of the Rectum Influence the Function of Anal Sphincters in Patients with Rectal Cancer? Preliminary Results of a Functional Assessment Study

The aim of the study was to assess the influence of neoadjuvant radiotherapy and resection of the rectum on the functional parameters of anal sphincters.

Material and methods. 20 patients with rectal cancer, qualified for low anterior rectal resection with neoadjuvant radiotherapy were enrolled in the study group. The study protocol included an anorectal manometry, electromyography and fecal incontinence questionnaire (FISI) before radiotherapy, after radiotherapy, and after the operation.

Results. Of the 20 patients 12 were included in the final analysis, because 8 patients were re-qualified to abdomino-perineal resection of the rectum after neoadjuvant treatment. There were no significant changes in anal pressures assessed 5 to 8 days after radiotherapy. In 3 cases (25%) pathological changes in RAIR reflex were found in the manometric examination. After low anterior resection mean basal anal pressures were significantly lower, whereas squeeze anal pressures did not change significantly. In 7 patients (58%) the RAIR reflex was pathological or even absent after low anterior resection. Changes in manometric parameters correlated with FISI incontinence assessment after the operation. In electromyographic examination action potentials of motoric units of the external anal sphincter were still present both after radiotherapy, and after operation.

Conclusions. Fecal incontinence after low anterior resection of the rectum seems to be caused mostly by changes in autonomic functionality of anal sphincters and lack of compliance of the neorectum, since the influence of neoadjuvant radiotherapy and the operation itself on the somatic innervation of anal sphincters seems to be minimal.

Open access

Wojciech Nowak, Beata Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Piotr Brzyski, Jerzy Sałówka, Dagmara Kuliś and Piotr Richter

Adaptation of Quality of Life Module EORTC QLQ-CR29 for Polish Patients with Rectal Cancer - Initial Assessment of Validity and Raeliability

Heath related quality of life has been an important object of interest in the clinical practice, focused on assessment of treatment effects from patient's point of view, with particular emphasis placed on effect of treatment on daily patient functioning. Concept of health-related quality of life needs valid and reliable instruments.

The aim of the study was to present the process of validation of a new version of EORTC QLQ-CR29 module in Polish patients suffering from rectal cancer.

Material and methods. EORTC QLQ-CR29 module comprises 29 questions, and was adapted to Polish cultural conditions based on EORTC procedure. Data collected from 20 patients were analyzed, their agreement with theoretical and empirical structure was assessed. Convergent and discriminant validity were analyzed with multi trait scaling.

Reliability was assessed with Cronbach alpha coefficient. Known group validity was assessed in terms of differences between men and women, and between stoma and non-stoma patients. Exact Mann-Whitney test was used. P values lower than 0.05 were considered significant.

Results. Scales built on bases of empirical model of module had higher validity and reliability than those based on theoretical model.

There were no significant differences between men and women in health-related quality of life. Significantly higher values were observed in non-stoma patients on body image scale and for leakage of stool item. Reversed relationship was observed in case of abdominal and buttocks pain, as well as embarrassment because of bowel movements.

Conclusions. Module CR29 is a valid and reliable tool, which enables standardized measurement of treatment effects, suggested for use as main tool measuring impact of disease itself and applied treatment on health-related quality of life of rectal cancer patients.

Open access

Wojciech Kawiorski, Tadeusz Popiela, Wojciech Kibil, Piotr Richter, Jan Kulig and Tadeusz Popiela

Treatment of Esophageal Achalasia - Pneumatic Dilatation Vs Surgical Procedure

Esophageal achalasia, one of the most common motor activity disturbances of the upper gastrointestinal tract, continues to pose a significant diagnostic and therapeutic problem, especially in patients with milder forms of the disease.

The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare treatment results (pneumatic dilatation, cardiomy-otomy) in patients with esophageal achalasia, as well as determine the usefulness of intraoperative, continuous manometric monitoring of the corrected segment of the "esophagogastric junction" (evaluation of myotomy).

Material and methods. The study group comprised 104 patients, including 71 female and 33 male, treated at the Department during the period between 1997 and 2004. The mean patient age was 43.5 years, ranging between 19 and 75 years. The duration of the disease ranged between 5 months and 22 years.

Every patient was subjected to endoscopy, histopathological, radiological and manometric examinations, before treatment. The therapeutic model was based on a two-staged management process. During the initial stage of therapy, patients were subjected to 2-3 pneumatic dilatations. A lack of response to treatment was considered treatment failure and these patients qualified for surgery - Heller's myotomy with antireflux treatment (fundoplication). Cachectic patients requiring immediate surgical intervention were excluded from the study.

Results. Following pneumatic dilatation, good or very good results were obtained in 73 (70.2%) of the 104 patients. Procedures were repeated in only 8 (11%) patients, due to the recurrence of dysphagia. The remaining 31 (29.8%) patients underwent surgery with simultaneous intraoperative manometric control of the performed myotomy.

Conclusions. Based on the obtained results, one can confirm the significant efficacy of pneumatic dilatation, which is considered the ultimate therapy. In the case of patients in whom we were not able to obtain good clinical results, one observed improved esophagogastric passage, which in turn improved nutritional parameters before planned surgical intervention.

Intraoperative esophageal manometry enabled us to accurately evaluate the correctness of myotomy, which seemed to be an indispensable element in the prevention of disease recurrence.

Open access

Jakub Kenig, Piotr Richter, Sabina Żurawska, Anna Lasek, Katarzyna Zbierska and W. Nowak


Described in the literature dehiscence rate in the adult population is 0.3-3.5%, and in the elderly group as much as 10%. In about 20-45% evisceration becomes a significant risk factor of death in the perioperative period.

The aim of the study was to identify the main risk factors for abdominal wound dehiscence in the adult population.

Material and methods. The study included patients treated in the 3rd Department of General Surgery, Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum in Cracow in the period from January 2008 to December 2011, in which at that time laparotomy was performed and was complicated by wound dehiscence in the postoperative period. For each person in a research group, 3-4 control patient were selected. Selection criteria were corresponding age (± 2-3 years), gender, underlying disease and type of surgery performed.

Results. In 56 patients (2.9%) dehiscence occurred in the postoperative period with 25% mortality. The group consisted of 37 men and 19 women with the mean age of 66.8 ± 12.6 years. Univariate analysis showed that chronic steroids use, surgical site infection, anastomotic dehiscence/fistula in the postoperative period and damage to the gastrointestinal tract are statistically significant risk factors for dehiscence. Two first of these factors occurred to be independent risk factors in the multivariate analysis. In addition, due to the selection criteria, a group of risk factors should also include male gender, emergency operation, midline laparotomy, colorectal syrgery and elderly age (> 65 years). Logistic regression analysis did not show that a particular surgeon, time of surgery or a particular month (including holiday months) were statistically significant risk factor for dehiscence.

Conclusions. Wound dehiscence is a serious complication with relatively small incidence but also high mortality. Preoperative identification of risk factors allows for a more informed consent before patient’s treatment and to take measures to prevent or minimize the consequences of complication associated with it.

Open access

Jakub Kenig, Piotr Richter, Urszula Olszewska and Beata Żychiewicz


Until now, the literature about the influence of specific comorbid conditions on outcome of emergency abdominal surgery in polish elderly patients is scars.

The aim of the study was to determine the prognostic role of comorbidities in patients qualified for emergency abdominal surgery.

Material and methods. One hundred and eighty four consecutive patients(98 female and 86 male). 65 years of age were prospectively enrolled. The mean age was 76.9±5.8 (range 65-100) years old.

Results. Only 16% of patients did not have any preoperative comorbidity. The 30-day mortality was 24.5% (45 patients). The 30-day morbidity was experienced by the 58.7% (108 patients), including 40 patients (21.7%) with minor complications and 68 patients (37%) with major complications, according to the Clavien-Dindo complications scale.

The dysrhythmia (odds ratio 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.6, p=0.02), vascular disease (odds ratio 2.1, 95% CI 1.4- 3.1, p=0.02) and renal disease (odds ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-2.8, p=0.01) were independent risk factors of 30-day morbidity. The vascular disease was also the independent risk factor of 30-day postoperative death in the multivariate regression analysis (odds ratio 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.8, p=0.001).

Conclusions. Preoperative comorbidities are common among elderly patients qualified for emergency abdominal surgery. However, only some of them (the dysrhythmia, the vascular disease and the renal disease) are independent risk factors of postoperative adverse outcomes. Therefore, number of comorbidies alone should not be the reason for a limited treatment.

Open access

Jakub Kenig, Piotr Richter and Katarzyna Żanowska

Open access

Jakub Kenig, Piotr Richter, Beata Żychiewicz and Urszula Olszewska


The Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES-13) is a simple function based frailty screening tool that can be also administered by the nonclinical personnel within 5 minutes and has been validated in the out- and in patient clinic and acute medical care settings.

The aim of the study was to validate theaccuracy of the VES-13 screening method for predicting the frailty syndrome based on a CGA in polish surgical patients.

Material and methods. We included prospectively 106 consecutive patients ≥65, that qualify for abdominal surgery (both due to oncological and benign reasons), at the tertiary referral hospital.We evaluated the diagnostic performance of VES-13 score comparing to the results from the CGA, accepted as the gold standard for identifying at risk frail elderly patients.

Results. The prevalence of frailty as diagnosed by CGA was 59.4%. There was significantly higher number of frail patients in the oncological group (78% vs. 31%; p<0.01). According to the frailty screening methods, the frailty prevalence was 45.3%. The VES-13 score had a 60% sensitivity and 78% specificity in detecting frailty syndrome. The positive and negative predictive value was 81% and 57%, respectively. The overall predictive capacity was intermediate (AUC=0.69)

Conclusions. At present, the VES-13 screening tool for older patients cannot replace the comprehensive geriatric assessment; this is due to the insufficient discriminative power to select patients for further assessment. It might be helpful in a busy clinical practice and in facilities that do not have trained personal for geriatric assessment.