State-owned enterprises still play an important role in many countries around the world. The aim of this research is to indicate which factors had a significant impact on the scale of state ownership in enterprises in the group of twenty eight post-socialist countries. The large scale privatisation indicator from the EBRD and the novel microlevel-based SOE measure were regressed on sets of cultural, political, economic and control variables. The results show that cultural factors—represented by the dominant religion—had a substantial impact on the scale of state ownership in enterprises while the role of political and economic factors was less pronounced. These results emphasise the importance of cultural factors in shaping the scale of state ownership in enterprises. This study contributes to the literature by analysing factors influencing the scale of state ownership in enterprises in contemporary economic conditions which has been missing until now.
The statutory mission of a university, in addition to the creation of scientific knowledge and education, lies in the cooperation with the economic sector through the transfer of knowledge and technology. The effectiveness of this process directly affects the affluence of any given State’s economy. Owing to the new amendments to the Act on Higher Education, many barriers that hinder commercialisation of knowledge in Poland have been brought down. Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń sets an excellent example in this respect having established a special purpose entity, which has already managed to set up thirteen spin-off companies in just 18 months.
The pollution of water that is used for consumption and in agricultural holdings contributes to an increased mortality rate, inhibition of growth and physiological functions, changes in the DNA (genotoxicity), changes within tissues (cytotoxicity) and organs of individuals who are exposed to chemical components. One of the most dangerous toxin classes which have effect on animals and humans who come into contact with contaminated water is the class of cyanobacterial toxins released by dying cyanobacteria. They contribute to very serious health conditions and also to fatalities. Toxins of this type are relatively difficult to detect on account of their seasonal changeability in blooming. One of the most effective methods of detecting water contamination automatically and continuously is biomonitoring with the use of Dreissena polymorpha mussels.