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  • Author: Piotr Leszczyński x
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The paper discusses the results of selected fatigue tests of a motor glider’s insulated spar structure. The results of the experimental tests were used to assess the potential of the strain-gauge method for diagnosing the spar damage involving the unbolting of one of metal fittings in the spar pin. The usefulness of the deformation measurement method in the composite structure diagnostic process was confirmed, while simultaneously drawing attention to the need for conducting a process optimizing the number of sensors and their distribution on a tested object, in the context of the sensitivity of diagnostic signals received.


This paper provides the result of the geometrical optimisation of a wing strut joint of an aircraft. The objective of the geometrical optimisation was to modify the geometry of the wing strut joint components to meet an optimisation criterion defined as yield strength determined by static tensile testing. The geometrical optimisation was processed on a computer model of the wing strut joint using FEM (finite element method). The design variables assumed in this geometrical optimisation were the load option and boundary conditions of interaction between the wing strut joint components. An analysis carried out as part of the geometrical optimisation was based on proposing modifications to the geometry of the joint features at their maximum stress levels. The geometry optimisation results will be applied in the preparation and performance of validation strength testing of the wing strut joint assembly.


The process of continuing education of paramedics is based on gaining educational credits during five-year educational periods. One of the forms of self-improvement are Internet-based educational programs. The lack of regulations concerning the organizational and technical aspects of e-learning made the authors attempt to analyze the phenomenon. The aim of the article is to present an initial analysis of the role of online educational programs in comparison with other forms of professional training of paramedics. One in three respondents has recently used one of the methods of distance learning. Despite the low awareness of the effectiveness of e-learning, almost 70% of the interviewees expressed a positive opinion about it and over 50% were willing to use such forms in the future. The respondents preferred online trainings in the asynchronous version, containing audio-visual materials and providing the possibility to obtain a certificate issued to the participant after completing the course. The demand for topics in the area of professional training included mainly the fields of Drug Therapy, electrotherapy, electrocardiogram (ECG) evaluation, medical segregation, and help in delivery in pre-hospital conditions. Modern forms of distance learning do not make it possible to acquire practical skills, yet their role in professional training of paramedics is still significant. According to the authors, online educational programs constitute an effective complement to traditional training through the performance of tasks in a mixed form, known as blended-learning.


Textbooks have played the leading role in academic education for centuries and their form has evolved, adapting to the needs of students, teachers and technological possibilities. Advances in technology have caused educators to look for new sources of knowledge development, which students could use inside and outside the classroom. Today’s sophisticated learning tools range from virtual environments to interactive multimedia resources, which can be called e-textbooks. Different types of new educational materials that go beyond printed books are now used to support the academic curriculum, with the most interesting ones exemplified in this article to show their value in medical and life sciences education. Certain interesting attempts by Polish publishers at applying technology to support both self-paced and tutor-paced student learning in the medical profession and related areas are presented. The data was collected through a review of literature, discussions with e-learning specialists and medical students, as well as an analysis of examples of good practices. The article also discusses the results of a countrywide survey on the use of e-textbooks to enhance medical education. The research investigates the targeted academic staff’s attitudes towards the use of e-textbooks, the limitations of their implementation, and the character of e-resources currently used by Polish higher education medical institutions.


Introduction. Since January 1st, 2016, particular groups of nurses and midwives in Poland are allowed to write prescriptions and refer patients to diagnostic procedures without doctors’ involvement.

Aim. The aim of the study was to assess what university students know about the changes that expanded the professional competencies of nurses and midwives.

Material and methods. The study group comprised of 535 students of three different universities. The group was 82% female and the mean age was 23 years (min.=19; max.=58, SD=4.780). Nursing students were the largest group among the study participants (177 individuals which meant 33% of the total), followed by Medicine students (145 individuals, 27% of all), Midwifery (107 persons, 20% of the total), and Public Health (100 persons, 19% of all). As many as 324 respondents (60%) had never participated in any medical law-related courses. A voluntary and anonymous survey containing 39 questions divided into 3 parts: 13 questions about knowledge, 26 statements concerning attitudes using a Likert scale, 8 demographic questions) was used. Obtaining an approval from the University’s Ethical Review Board was not required. Pearson’s chi-square test was used to compare frequency of the correct answers by students of every major. The Kruskal-Wallis rank test with a post-hoc analysis for multiple comparison of mean rank sums, STATISTICA version 12.5 (StatSoft, Inc.), licensed to MUW, α=0.05, were used to calculate the differences in summative points for correct answers.

Results. Nursing students were significantly more likely to choose the correct answers, unlike Medicine or Public Health students (p<0.001), as well as Midwifery students (p<0.002). The answers provided by the students of Medicine, Public Health, and Midwifery were relatively similar.

Conclusions. The knowledge of students of various Polish universities concerning the expansion of professional competencies of nurses and midwives was insufficient and needs to be urgently updated. Learning curricula to be modified not only for students of Nursing and Midwifery but also for other members of therapy team, e.g. physicians and pharmacists as well as specialists in public health.