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  • Author: Piotr Książek x
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Introduction. Rational nutrition of women during pregnancy has a great influence on the developing fetus. In the properly developing pregnancy, woman should eat 3-4 quality meals per day. What is more, for the proper development of the fetus, as well as the placenta, uterus and the mammary gland, it is necessary to consume high-value protein products. Moreover, vitamins and mineral compounds are important due to the serious implications that arise if not properly provided.

Aim. The aim of the paper is to assess the nutritional practices, the level of knowledge held by pregnant women with respect to proper nourishment practices, and to define the influence of level of formal education achieved upon this issue.

Material and methods. The research involved 87 pregnant women who were under the care of the outpatient women's health centre and high-risk pregnancy unit of the Regional Specialist Hospital in Biała Podlaska.

Results and discussion. According to most of the female respondents, information concerning proper nutrition of pregnant women is not generally available. Because of this, in completing the questionnaire, more than half of the subjects stated that they often consume white bakery products, white rice and refined pasta - with insufficient consumption of brown bread, rice and wholemeal pasta. Furthermore, while the respondents seem to consume the proper amount of potatoes, barely 8% consume other vegetables with the advised frequency. Moreover, only 31% of the respondents take-in fruits in necessary quantities. However, a majority of them frequently consume milk, yoghurt, cheese, kefir and buttermilk; plus, more than half of the respondents drink at least 1-2 litres of various kinds of liquids per day. Our results also reveal that they very rarely consume fresh fish, poultry and red beef meat, preferring cooked products. Indeed, the respondents stated that they consume meat and fish mainly in a fried form, while 52.9% of the women take-in fast food products. Of note, the surveyed women prefer animal fats. In addition, nearly 70% of the subjects consume too many eggs. Furthermore, more than 40% consume an excessive amount of sugar and sweets. To conclude, the proper amount of meals is consumed by only 52.7% of the respondents, no matter their formal education level.

Conclusions. Many abnormalities were found while verifying negatively the hypothesis, according to which, level of formal education achieved has an impact on the increase of consciousness in terms of proper nourishment during the pregnancy.


Introduction. Performance management is a crucial concept in the broader field of human resource management. In accordance with its principles, in defining a professional role, its aim must be included. In addition, key results areas and crucial competencies must be stated. The professional role of a nurse with regard to pregnancy and pre-natal care, is defined by way of the set of functions fulfilled. The role of a midwife and her competencies are, however, in this situation, much broader.

Aim. The aim of the conducted research was to determine the roles played by both nursing and midwifery staff in ensuring a healthy pregnancy and delivery by way of their patients' assessment.

Material and methods. The research was conducted in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology unit, in the Regional Specialist Hospital in Biała Podlaska, and it involved 40 pregnant women.

Results and discussion. Our study reveals that what the subject women need the most from the nursing and midwifery staff, is emotional support. What is more, the dominant majority connects their expectations as to the fulfilment of the roles played by nursing and midwifery staff to an increase in information support.

Conclusion. The obtained results allow a defining of the aim of the professional roles of nurses and midwives in supporting and assisting the pregnant, as well as identifying their key results areas and crucial competencies from the patients' point of view. In comparing our own study results to that involving patients' opinions (gained by way of a study conducted in the obstetrics and gynaecology unit, by the quality care assessment section of the Regional Specialist Hospital in Biała Podlaska), it can be stated that there is continuous positive growth in the quality of service provided by nurses and midwives.


Introduction. Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV), also called clubfoot is the second after congenital dysplasia of the hip (CDH) most frequently occurring congenital limb defect. In Europe the deformity affects 1-2 newborns in 1000 live births.

Aim. The aim of the study was to determine frequency of the deformity among other reasons for hospitalization, as well as depicting the profile of patients treated for clubfoot.

Material and methods. Study method was the analysis of medical documentation from two Orthopaedic Wards of Prof. Antoni Gębala Children’s Hospital of Lublin. Medical records of patients treated for congenital talipes equinovarus (IDC 10-Q66.0) between 2008 and 2013 were the study material.

Results. Results of the study show that in the analyzed period of time 310 children were hospitalized for clubfoot in hospotal. 39.35% (n=122) of the total number of patients were girls and 60.65% (n=188) were boys. The average age of patients was 3.69 years, (Me=1.09 years). Average age of girls was 4.17 (Me=1.35 years) and boys 3.89 (Me=0.83 years). The most numerous group consisted of infants up to 1 year (n=154; 49.68%).

Conclusions. Clubfoot affects boys twice as often as girls. Moreover, in the examined hospital the average length of stay for patients with clubfoot has decreased. The research reveals that the average hospitalization length in children with congenital talipes equinovarus is systematically decreasing. The study shows that the number of patients being admitted to the Children’s Orthopedics Institute of the Hospital is increasing while the number of patients with clubfoot remains on the same level.


Introduction. Breast cancer is the second major cause of death in the world, after lung cancer. The purpose of screening tests is to diagnose cancer at non-clinical symptoms stage, when the prognosis is good and treatment less costly. Among different currently available screening methods, mammography plays a key role in early breast cancer detection.

Aim. The purpose of this work was to evaluate women’s in pre- and postmenopausal age in Lublin basic knowledge about preventive examination, their participation level and satisfaction with mammography.

Material and methods. The study included 258 women, participants of mammography examination at the Witold Chodzko Institute of Rural Health in Lublin and in Specialist Clinic of the Stefan Cardinal Wyszynski Province Specialist Hospital in Lublin, at the turn of years 2011/2012.

The research method was a diagnostic survey and research tool – the Original Questionnaire.

Results. An opinion that prophylaxis should come as a result of aware lifestyle is not common (22.1% of participants is committed to expand their knowledge about health threats). Almost 20% of women has never participated in any prevention examination. Approximately 39% of respondents admitted that they have received an invitation for free examination in mammography mobile unit (MMU). Almost 52% respondents (out of those who correctly identified the term MMU) said that they are interested in visiting MMUs in the future.

Conclusions. The number of participants taking part in preventive examinations and in screening tests is unsatisfactory. Numerous subjective factors cause this situation. Many women still does not trust mammography tests made in mobile mammography facilities.


Introduction. The problem university students’ drinking in Poland has evoked greater interest lately. Numerous studies conducted in the recent years have indicated an increase in consumption of high-proof alcoholic beverages among students.

Aim. The aim of the study was to explore the influence of alcohol over on risky behavior among first and fourth year students of the Medical Faculty at the Medical University in Lublin during the academic year 2011/2012.

Material and methods. The study looked at 120 students, 45 men and 75 women; 60 people from the first and 60 people from the fourth year of the Medical Faculty. The method of an author’s original questionnaire, which was fully anonymous, was used. Answering 22 questions included in the questionnaire was voluntary, those completing the questionnaires could refuse to participate in the study at any time.

Results. Statistically significant correlations between students who abused alcohol and their risky behaviors were found.

Conclusions. There are some negative consequences of young people’s drinking alcohol and the most frequent symptoms They include: driving under the influence, engaging in risky sexual behaviors or starting fights. Several respondents admitted that they were passengers while the driver was intoxicated. Students being in a state of intoxication more often engaged in sexual activities. Alcohol consumption might also result in irrational decisions which could endanger health and lives e.g.: jumping from a roof. A few students of the fourth year were occasionally involved in gambling. A number of students admitted undergoing medical assistance after alcohol consumption.


Introduction. Alcohol abuse among the youth is a pressing social issue. It is not only related to one’s individual susceptibility to risky or harmful drinking but also the issue of one’s family living with the individual that abuses alcohol. It needs emphasizing that alcohol consumption is on the rise and the age at which young people have their first alcoholic drink is declining as well. Also, girls tend to drink as much as boys.

Aim. The aim of this work was to investigate the issue of alcohol abuse among young people of school age and the relationship between the following variables: school educational level, sex, satisfaction with home life and drinking patterns.

Material and methods. The authors interviewed some 1444 students of 32 schools (12 elementary schools, 10 junior high schools and 10 high schools) chosen at random, using an anonymous questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed statistically, taking the following factors into consideration: sex, school level, atmosphere at home.

Results and conclusions. One’s sex, school level and satisfaction with home life had influence over the respondents’ answers concerning alcohol consumption. The research study shows that students of schools at all levels drink alcohol - high school students drink vodka, junior high school students (gimnazjum in Polish) prefer beer, while elementary school students, who tend to drink the least, prefer wine. Interestingly enough, boys are drinking more than girls, yet girls are more likely to try all types of alcohol. Children who reported good atmosphere at home are less likely to drink, while in case of troubled homes, only every eighth respondent does not drink. The atmosphere at home also affects one’s drinking habits. Most of the respondents have no idea about ways of helping people addicted to alcohol.


Introduction. Clubfoot is the second most common birth defect of the lower limb. In Europe (including Poland) it concerns about 1-2 in 1000 newborns. What is characteristic for a clubfoot, is change in the foot shape and its impairment with preserving anatomical structures.

Aim. The aim of this work is to gather opinions of orthopedic physicians on the effectiveness of the two methods used to treat congenital clubfoot: the Turco method and the Ponseti method.

Material and methods. The research method used in the work was a diagnostic survey and research technique was the author’s questionnaire designed to gather opinions of orthopedic surgeons on the two methods of clubfoot treatment. The questionnaires were collected in the Orthopaedic Clinics in Lublin and Rzeszów, as well as during the specialization courses for orthopaedic surgeons in Lublin.

Results. The most important advantages of the Ponseti method according to respondents are high clinical effectiveness (average 4.48) and short duration of hospitalization (average 4.31). While the most important disadvantages of the method is length of rehabilitation (average 2.85) and convalescence (average 2.36). Top assets of the Turco method in turn, according to respondents, are high clinical efficiency (average 2.92) and certainty of the patient’s recovery (2.74). In turn, the downsides of the Turco method according to the respondents are high invasiveness (average 4.11) and length of convalescence (average 3.87).

Conclusion. The Ponseti method is the surveyed doctors’ preferred method of congenital clubfoot treatment.


Cystic fibrosis is one of the most common genetic diseases among Caucasians due to its prevalence. Modern methods of molecular diagnostics and treatment of the disease allow to prolong the life of patients. In order to apply the appropriate treatment, the genetic basis of this disease should, however, first be known. The most common and the most severe mutation present in the CFTR gene (60-70% of cases) takes the form of an allele. This is responsible for the deletion of phenylalanine in position 508 (Δ508) of the CFTR protein. Determination of mutations in the CFTR gene using molecular techniques makes it possible to identify the causes of the disease in people who do not show the characteristic symptoms of cystic fibrosis.


Dental caries in children and teenagers is a social problem and an important element in public health. It stems from its high prevalence and the consequences of not implementing proper treatment are serious. Younger and younger children suffer from dental caries. When it is not treated, the consequences tend to be serious and costly. Pathogenesis of dental caries, methods of treatment and its prevention have been described based on available literature.

The decline in frequency of its appearance will be beneficial for both the sick and society. It will be possible thanks to an early introduction of caries prophylaxis. What is more, a change of mindset and lifestyle is highly recommended as well, not to mention the fact that full and easy access to dental care seems to be essential. All of the factors mentioned above are strictly connected with the proper organization of dental care providing special treatment for children and teenagers in Poland. Its scale should be wide and should cover such activities like teaching to brush one’s teeth properly, access to fluoridation or treatment provided in public dental surgeries located, for example, on school grounds. Current organization of dental care is dealing better and better with the issue concerned, however, to minimalize the risk of caries in children further changes should be introduced.


Introduction. In many countries, the concept of OTC drugs, among others, is defined in advance by the assumed maximum period of their use – usually 3-5 days. In fact, many patients often benefit from these opportunities too often, use medication for longer than 3-5 days and prefer symptomatic treatment rather than causal. OTC drugs give people a sense of freedom and subjectivity. Numerous doctors claim that too much freedom in this case can prove dangerous.

Aim. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in attitudes towards the use of OTC drugs in medicine students as they acquire knowledge and medical experience.

Material and methods. The study looked at 178 students of the Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Lublin (89 – 1 and 2 year students as well 89 – 5 and 6 year ones). A diagnostic survey was used as a tool for obtaining responses from the participants. The survey was conducted between October 2014 and November 2014.

Results. Almost 90% of medical students use OTC drugs for self-medication, while only 11% of them have never used such medicine. Analysis of students’ attitudes indicate that acquired medical knowledge has no effect on the frequency using this type of treatment. Overall, students tend to use such drugs occasionally. Only some 14-23% of them use the OTC drugs on a regular basis. The motivations for the use such drugs include: convenience, the previous experiences implying the efficacy of drugs, less frequent are other reasons. Some 28% of the students participating in the study and at least 13% of graduating medical students accept prolonged use of OTC drugs. As the consequence acquisition of medical knowledge, the students are less likely to consult their self-medication attitudes with doctors, families and friends, more often and accurately read the leaflets for drugs, and are more and more reluctant to proposals for extending the assortment of available OTC drugs.

Conclusions. 1. Almost 90% of medical students use OTC drugs for self-treatment. 2. 28% of polled 1-2 year medical students and at least 13% of graduating ones may have tendencies to abuse drugs. 3. Over the subsequent years of study, medical students more often read medicine leaflets, they become less reliant on the advice they receive from their family or friends regarding self-treatment or they are less willing to extend the range of available OTC drugs.