Methane and carbon dioxide emission from some reservoirs in SE Poland
The results of emission measurements of carbon dioxide and methane from the surfaces of three man-made lakes in southeastern Poland (two little dam reservoirs - in Rzeszów and Wilcza Wola, and the biggest Polish reservoir situated in Solina) are presented in this paper. The experiments were conducted in summer and autumn of 2009. The gas fluxes on the water - atmosphere interface were measured in the littoral area by so called "static chamber" method. Carbon dioxide and methane concentrations in collected gas samples were measured using a Pye Unicam gas chromatograph (model PU-4410/19) equipped with a methanizer to detect low levels of CO2 concentrations. The fluxes of determined gases ranged from -24.98 to 162.51 mmol m-2 d-1 for carbon dioxide and from 0 to 235.60 mmol m-2 d-1 for methane. The highest values of flux for both CH4 and CO2 were observed for Rzeszów Reservoir, the lowest ones - for Solina Reservoir. In some studied cases emission of CO2 and CH4 was as much high as in tropical reservoirs.
The paper presents an analysis of the trophic status of two small retention reservoirs located in the Subcarpathian region: Blizne reservoir on the River Ladzierz and Cierpisz reservoir on the River Tuszymka. The capacity of the reservoirs is respectively 137,000 m3 and 22,000 m3 and they occupy an area of 11.46 and 2.3 hectares. The study was conducted from May to October in 2013 and in 2014. Samples of surface water were collected from two locations for each reservoir. Assessment of the trophic status of the reservoirs was based on the concentrations of phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll a. Criteria available in the literature were used to assess the trophic status. The progress of eutrophication was also evaluated on the basis of the Trophic State Index (TSI). Analysis of the results showed that in the studied period the water of Blizne was on the border of eutrophic and hypertrophic. The fertility of the water of Cierpisz in the analysed period deteriorated from the eutrophic state to the border with hypertrophic
The aim of the present study was to determine the level of contamination of the bottom sediments in the Rzeszow reservoir by the selected heavy metals Pb, Cd and Zn, and to identify the potential environmental risks of heavy metals content basing on available assessments and classification of bottom sediments. The Rzeszow reservoir is situated on the Wisłok River in the Podkarpackie Voivodeship, southeaster Poland, was constructed on 1974. Nowadays, as a result of silting, the reservoir reduced its surface and depth, which does not have a positive effect on the assumed functions it is to perform. The study was conducted in 2016. The samples of sediment were collected in five locations. Samples were taken twice: in June and in October. The following concentrations have been determined: cadmium - 0.01 ÷ 0.92 mg•kg–1, zinc - 54.39 ÷ 128 mg•kg–1, lead - 2.98 ÷ 25.42 mg•kg–1. The decline trend in the sediment is following: Zn > Pb > Cd. For the assessment of sediment contamination, following methods: aquatic sediment quality classification used by the Polish Geological Institute - I class, Regulation of the Minister of Environment of April 16 2002 on the types and concentrations of substances contaminating the excavated material – unpolluted and LAW sediment classification – Pb - I/I-II, Cd - I/I-II/II and Zn - I/I-II. The obtained results were compared with the results obtained by the other authors in earlier years, which led to the estimated changes in the concentration of the tested metals.
The article presents research results of the introduction of powdery activated carbon to the existing technological system of the groundwater treatment stations in a laboratory, pilot plant and technical scale. The aim of the research was to reduce the content of organic compounds found in the treated water, which create toxic organic chlorine compounds (THM) after disinfection with chlorine. Nine types of powdery active carbons were tested in laboratory scale. The top two were selected for further study. Pilot plant scale research was carried out for the filter model using CWZ-30 and Norit Sa Super carbon. Reduction of the organic matter in relation to the existing content in the treated water reached about 30%. Research in technical scale using CWZ-30 carbon showed a lesser efficiency with respect to laboratory and pilot-plant scale studies. The organic matter decreased by 15%. Since filtration is the last process before the individual disinfection, an alternative solution is proposed, i.e. the second stage of filtration with a granular activated carbon bed, operating in combined sorption and biodegradation processes. The results of tests carried out in pilot scale were fully satisfactory with the effectiveness of 70–100%.