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  • Author: Piotr Klimaszyk x
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Roosting Colony of Cormorants (Phalacrocorax Carbo Sinensis L.) as a Source of Nutrients for the Lake

Abstract

Since 2005, great cormorants have been observed on the Lake Góreckie (Wielkopolski National Park) shoreline. The population of these birds occurring within the lake has gradually increased. In autumn 2008, more than 100 individuals were observed. In the period 2009-2012 the number of birds occupying the island periodically exceeded 250 individuals. So far, there is no breeding colony of great cormorants, but the birds have established a roosting colony on the island. In the period 2009-2012 we conducted research on the impact of the colony of great cormorants on the accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and other elements in soils beneath the colony and transfer of chemical elements from the colony to a nearby freshwater ecosystem. Our results show that a relatively small and recent colony of great cormorants can significantly affect the chemistry of soil. Compared to a control, the soil beneath the colony was characterized by statistically higher concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus. A significant accumulation of nutrients was observed in the topsoil zone (to a depth of about 20 cm). Enrichment of soil in chemical elements has resulted in their further transport to a nearby lake. Compared to the control, the groundwater and surface runoff from the colony area revealed several-fold higher concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus. The maximum abundance of cormorants in the roosting colony was reflected in the elevated concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in the littoral water near the colony. Our study demonstrates that the roosting colony of great cormorants can play a significant role in accelerating the eutrophication of surface waters.

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Sedimentary fractions of phosphorus before and after drainage of an urban water body (Maltański Reservoir, Poland)

Abstract

Urban reservoirs can receive high loads of chemicals, including persistent contaminants and eutrophication-promoting nutrients. To maintain their economic and recreational use, implementation of various restoration methods is often required. The Maltański Reservoir (Poland, Europe), a small, shallow and dammed urban water body, undergoes complete draining every four years as part of its restoration procedure. Here, we investigated the phosphorus (P) content and its fractions just before the reservoir was drained and after it had been completely filled with water again. As demonstrated, the highest accumulation of P occurred at sites through which the main water flow is directed. Calcium-bound and residual P constituted the largest proportion of P fractions. A shift in P fractions after the reservoir was drained and sediments were left without water for at least 4 months was observed. A decrease in phytoplankton utilized NH4Cl-P, Fe-P and NaOH-P fractions was found and followed a simultaneous increase in nearly biologically inaccessible HCl-P and practically biologically inactive residual P fractions. Our study demonstrates that complete drainage of the Maltański Reservoir may additionally decrease the risk of internal P loading through shifts in its fractions.

Open access
Impact of cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis L.) colonies on microbial pollution in lakes

Abstract

During 2009-2011 we investigated the effect of perennial and roosting cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) colonies on microbial pollution in 3 lakes: Góreckie (Greater Poland National Park), Chrzypsko (Greater Poland Province) and Ostrowiec (Drawa National Park). On Lake Góreckie cormorants formed a roosting colony (<200 individuals) that inhabited part of the lake shore. On Lake Chrzypsko a new breeding colony was formed (3 nests) while the breeding colony on Lake Ostrowiec, established over 40 years ago, consisted of over 170 breeding pairs. In the case of Lake Ostrowiec, high pollution with coliform bacteria (including Escherichia coli) was observed. Compared to the control station the significantly higher Most Probable Number (MPN) of coliform bacteria was found in groundwater under the colony. It was found that bacterial counts decreased in the direction of the centre of the water body with the highest numbers noted in the lake samples collected within the colony boundaries. Furthermore, seasonal variations in coliform bacteria were also observed with maximum densities during the breeding season. Similar trends were observed for the roosting colony on Lake Góreckie while for the newly forming colony on Lake Chrzypsko increased density of investigated bacteria was noted only in groundwater.

Open access
The effect of glyphosate-based herbicide on aquatic organisms – a case study

Abstract

The non-selective, post-emergence herbicides based on glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine] are one of the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, urban areas and forestry. Although there has been documentation on the physical, chemical and toxicological properties of glyphosate, the aquatic toxicity of such formulations still requires assessment and evaluation. In the present study, we describe deliberate use of glyphosate-based herbicide in a bathing area of Lake Lednica (Wielkopolska, Poland) by unknown perpetrators in April, 2011. Glyphosate was detected using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the water samples collected from the bathing area at a mean concentration of 0.09 mg dm-3. Aboveground parts of emerged macrophytes (Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia) covering the investigated area were completely withered. Studies of benthic macroinvertebrates revealed no significant differences in taxa number between event (13 taxa) and control (14 taxa) sites although differences in abundance of particular taxa were observed. Significantly lower numbers of Chironomidae (by 41%), Oligochaeta (by 43%), Vivipariae (by 75%), Hirudinae (by 75%), Asellus aquaticus (by 77%), Gammarus pulex (by 38%) and Dreissena polymorpha (by 42%) were found at the glyphosate-treated site. Furthermore, compared to the control, chironomids (Chironomidae) exposed to glyphosate were represented by specimens smaller in length while A. aquaticus only showed large adults. The ranges of glyphosate concentration in the tissues of sampled macroinvertebrates and Phragmites australis organs were 7.3-10.2 μg kg-1 and 16.2-24.7 μg kg-1, respectively. Our study indicates that glyphosate-based herbicides may have adverse effects on aquatic organisms including macroinvertebrates, thus their use in (or nearby) surface waters should be subject to strict limitation.

Open access
Pharmaceutical pollution of aquatic environment: an emerging and enormous challenge

Abstract

The global use of pharmaceuticals is on the systematic rise and leads to contamination of surface waters with xenobiotic compounds with a wide range of bioactivity. Waters that receive urban and medical effluents are particularly threatened. The presence of pharmaceuticals in these ecosystems can lead to unpredictable ecological impacts and responses, and may also have an impact on human health. At the same time the identification and quantification of these chemicals, to a large extent remains a subject to scientific investigation than part of a thorough monitoring programme. Their biological effects on aquatic organisms are mainly recognized experimentally and often using concentrations far exceeding environmentally relevant levels. This review paper defines the main sources of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment, discusses the fate of these compounds and summarizes the current state-of-the-art of pharmaceutical monitoring in Polish surface waters.

Open access
Metal accumulation in sediments and biota in Malta Reservoir (Poland)

Abstract

Municipal water reservoirs improve urban landscape architecture, providing water for various domestic uses. At the same time, they are under strong human impact affecting water quality and biological conditions. We investigated the level of metal accumulation (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn) in sediments as well as mussels Anodonta anatina and Unio tumidus and common reed Phragmites australis collected from 8 sampling sites at Malta Reservoir (Poznań, Poland) just before the complete drainage of the lake in November, 2012. In all investigated samples metal concentrations ranked in decreasing order: Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Cr>Ni>Pb>Co>Cd. Accumulation of toxic metals in roots of P. australis was higher than in soft tissues of mussels although it did not exceed phytotoxic levels. Roots of P. australis accumulated high levels of Cr (mean 9.7 μg g-1) and Ni (mean 5.7 μg g-1). U. tumidus accumulated higher concentrations of Cr (mean 1.1 μg g-1) than A. anatina indicating potential use in bioindication of this metal. The present study provides the most recent information on metal content in sediments and biota in Malta Reservoir and, further, suggests that this reservoir is capable of accumulating toxic elements from preceding water bodies (Lake Swarzędz) and surrounding residential areas.

Open access
Zooplankton communities in three adjacent softwater lobelia lakes of slightly differentiated morphology and trophic state

Abstract

The paper presents the results of an investigation of physical-chemical features of water as well as rotifer and crustacean abundance and diversity measures, relating to the taxonomic richness and species diversity index, in three lobelia lakes differing in trophic status and morphometric features. The main purpose of this study was to establish the diversity of zooplankton communities in the open water area of lobelia lakes, including extracting species common for each lake and also to find environmental predictors which are responsible for the development of zooplankton communities. Despite the fact that the three studied lakes are of the same origin, located in the same vicinity and have generally similar environmental factors, zooplankton community structure revealed a great variation in reference to species diversity (only ca. 20% of the species were common for all lakes) and particularly in inhabiting species. Obrowo Lake had the most diverse assemblages of both rotifers and crustaceans compared to Modre and Pomysko lakes. In the taxonomic structure species that are rare for the Polish fauna, such as e.g. Holopedium gibberum and Heterocope appendiculata, occurred. Even though the examined lobelia lakes are ecosystems that undergo varying human-induced impacts, they still remain taxonomically very variable aquatic ecosystems, containing rare species of very high ecological status. The observed symptoms of deterioration of water quality, reflected in the zooplankton biocoenotic features, showed that the best conditions were attributed to Obrowo Lake in comparison with the two remaining lakes – Modre and Pomysko. Total nitrogen and chlorophyll a concentration were decisive for the distribution of zooplankton species in Pomysko and Obrowo lakes, while in case of Modre lake water reactivity and conductivity were of higher impact.

Open access
Conservation status of the Natura 2000 habitat 3110 in Poland: Monitoring, classification and trends

Abstract

Soft water lakes, or so-called lobelia lakes, which are inhabited by a specific vegetation composed of isoetids, have been subjected to intense research aimed at evaluating their condition and conservation status for many years in Poland. At the time of Poland’s accession to the European Union and the implementation of the EU Habitats Directive, these lakes were classified as natural habitat 3110. In accordance with the provision of the Habitat Directive a comprehensive methodology for monitoring and classification of the state of this habitat has been developed. Using this methodology, two monitoring trials (in 2009–2010 and again in 2016–2017) were carried out at 45 and 43 sites of the 3110 natural habitat, respectively. These studies confirm the high sensitivity of these poorly buffered aquatic ecosystems to all external influences, both natural and anthropogenic. The overall conservation status of the 3110 habitat in Poland showed a relatively high stability, with similar proportions of sites classified as favourable (FV), unfavourable inadequate (U1) and unfavourable bad (U2) between 2009–2010 (35%, 49% and 16%, respectively) and 2016–2017 (33%, 56% and 11%, respectively). Out of 43 sites examined in 2016–2017, 29 remained unchanged compared with the results of the previous survey concerning their overall status. Results of the monitoring research also allow for the observation and evaluation of mechanisms and directions of changes in the functioning of these ecosystems. Based on the experiences from two series of monitoring conducted so far, the methodology has been assessed as appropriate for the assessment of the conservation status of the 3110 natural habitat, however, some modifications and additions have been suggested.

Open access