The aim of this study was to obtain new broccoli lines with cytoplasmic male sterility trait for the development of the modern F1 hybrids. CDT70 cauliflower line obtained in the Research Institute of Horticulture, formerly Research Institute of Vegetable Crops, Skierniewice, Poland, with the reliable cytoplasmic male sterility from Raphanus sativus (Ogu-INRA) was selected as a source of this trait. Three broccoli lines: BMi, BCr1 and BCr2 were used as donors of commercial characters in all cross combinations with sterile components. Selected fertile broccoli genotypes were characterized by good quality, uniformity and high level of self-compatibility. The breeding procedure included three consecutive back crosses of male sterile genotypes with fertile broccoli lines that lasted from 2008 to 2012. In each generation, self-compatibility level, the stability of the male sterility trait and ability for the generative propagation of back-crossed genotypes were tested in comparison with donor broccoli lines in the greenhouse. The agronomical and morphological characters of the back-crossed progeny were also evaluated in the field. As a result, three CMS broccoli lines of Bc3 generation with good quality and high seeding index, suitable for the breeding purposes, were obtained.
In the years of 2011 and 2013, seventeen inbred lines of Chinese cabbage were evaluated according to the ability for the generative propagation and the expression of self-incompatibility. Most of the lines pollinated in the greenhouse at the open flower stage were characterized by an intermediate level of selfincompatibility and formed less than one seed/silique; the other lines were highly self-incompatible or selfcompatible. The lines pollinated at the green bud stage were highly diversified according to the ability for seed development in both years of propagation; however, most of the lines formed sufficient amount of seeds for use as parental components. The average effectiveness of generative propagation after pollination at the open flower and green bud stages was higher in 2011 than in 2013, probably due to different weather conditions in these years influencing the seed development or inbreeding depression.
In the years of 2012-2013 male-sterile cauliflower genotypes with the Brassica nigra cytoplasm and their maintainers were tested with respect to their ability for generative propagation and the quality of agronomical traits in comparison to male-fertile inbreeds and sterile genotypes with the Ogu-INRA cytoplasm. The ability for the generative propagation for male-sterile genotypes with the B. nigra cytoplasm was diversified and lower than for the maintainer, fertile lines and lines with the Ogu-INRA cytoplasm.
Generative stalks of cauliflowers with the B. nigra cytoplasm usually had a higher number of buds and flowers in comparison to the fertile genotypes and to the sterile Ogu-INRA lines. The most desired commercial characteristics, such as circular shape, compactness of curd and intermediate or strong coverage by leaves, were noticed for sterile lines with the Ogu-INRA cytoplasm and their fertile complementary lines. Three experimental F1 hybrids showed good quality in comparison to commercial F1 cultivars.
Management of assignment of operational tasks realized in ship power plant
The frequent cause of ships' detentions by port authorities are abnormalities of ship power plant functioning. Each extended ship lay time in port results in waste of ship operating time thus costs rise to shipowners. This is connected with improper ship power plant management. In order to avoid this, a ship engineer should have at his disposal computer aided system supporting him in managing of ship power plant. Such a system can be worked out on condition that mathematical formula which represents the decision - making process of an engineer has been built. The present work shows approache to the problem according to the situation in which the engineer is made to take certain decisions. In formulation of the most substantial operating states of a ship like lay time in harbour and sea voyage the ‘knapsack algorithm’ was applied. For both approaches objective function was formulated.
The frequent causes of ships’ detentions by port authorities are abnormalities of marine power plant functioning. Each extended ship lay time in port results in a waste of ship operating time thus costs rise to ship owners. This is connected with improper marine power plant management. In order to avoid this, a ship engineer should have at his disposal computer aided system supporting him in the managing of the marine power plant. One element of the decision making process in managing the marine engine room is to determine how important is each of the tasks which the operators have to do. This estimation is the base to choose the most important tasks and make optimal schedule with them using AHP method. Based on practice, a hierarchic structure of factors influencing a tasks validity in the engine room operating process was made. Next a preliminary questionnaire was conducted, which put questions to the experts as chief engineers next. This enabled to define numerical values of suitable coefficients influencing on the validity of operating tasks, show results of calculations in form of mileage parameters of engine as a function of crank angle.
An important aspect of the simulation modelling process is sensitivity analysis. In this process, agent-based simulations often require analysis of structurally different parameter specifications - the parameters can be represented as objects and the object-oriented simulation configuration leads to nesting of simulation parameters. The nested parameters are naturally represented as a tree rather than a flat structure. The standard tools supporting multi-agent simulations only allow only the representation of the parameter space as a Cartesian product of possible parameter values. Consequently, their application for the required tree representation is limited. In this paper an approach to tree parameter space representation is introduced with an XML-based language. Furthermore, we propose a set of tools that allows one to manage parameterization of the simulation experiment independently of the simulation model.
Degradation of the environment is nowadays believed to be the most alarming problem that needs to be solved. Global warming and environmental pollution are predicted to cause a catastrophic chain reaction leading to species extinction, mass emigration due to rising sea levels and global crisis. The only solution suggested by international organizations is the immediate reduction of greenhouse gases and other harmful substances. Marine transportation harmful substances into the atmosphere are recognized to be a significant source of global atmospheric pollution. Despite the high efficiency of marine diesel engines, their impact on the environment is considerable. Due to environmentally friendly policies, modern engines concerns about not only efficiency but also mainly about s aspects. This article analyses and compares marine s exhaust gases reduction methods. Especially the most harmful substances emitted by ships were taken into consideration. The article presents the most crucial law regulations of harmful substances to the atmosphere, pointing at actual and possible future implementations. The most complex methods allowing meeting the latest limits were presented. Pros and cons of available control methods were thoroughly described and methods were compared. The most adequate methods form the effectiveness and economical point of view was pointed out.
The main purpose is to present the stochastic perturbation-based Finite Element Method analysis of the stability in the issues related to the influence of high temperature resulting from a fire directly connected with the reliability analysis of such structures. The thin-walled beam structures with constant cross-sectional thickness are uploaded with typical constant loads, variable loads and, additionally, a temperature increase and we look for the first critical value equivalent to the global stability loss. Such an analysis is carried out in the probabilistic context to determine as precisely as possible the safety margins according to the civil engineering Eurocode statements. To achieve this goal we employ the additional design-oriented Finite Element Method program and computer algebra system to get the analytical polynomial functions relating the critical pressure (or force) and several random design parameters; all the models are state-dependent as we consider an additional reduction of the strength parameters due to the temperature increase. The first four probabilistic moments of the critical forces are computed assuming that the input random parameters have all Gaussian probability functions truncated to the positive values only. Finally, the reliability index is calculated according to the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) by an application of the limit function as a difference in-between critical pressure and maximum compression stress determined in the given structures to verify their durability according to the demands of EU engineering designing codes related to the fire situation.
In the last decade evolution of the requirements for training and professional competences of ship’s crewmembers, including ship engineers can be observed. Despite the implementation of training programs according to IMO requirements in maritime training centres, a different level of competence of young people beginning their professional career on ships in the engine department is observed. The article discusses general conventions, goals, and effects of the “BS Cadet Program” training program, introduced by one of the larger German ship-owner to improve the competencies of crewmembers at the operational level, who will take duties of the watch engineer in the ship engine room soon. General idea of this training program is reducing the time of the path career what is a standard in most shipping companies. Such idea in this program is utilised by directly merging theoretical knowledge with professional practice on special prepared training vessel. The work present also comparison of the acquired knowledge verification results of training participants with the results of engine cadets from last semester of the UMG Faculty of Engineering. The comparison includes computer exercises of Marine equipment and machineries (UNITEST Company – CBT) also genera ship and engine room knowledge checked by written test called “Final Test” carried out on the end of 3 months training.
The Central and Eastern European (CEE) capital markets (of Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Ukraine and, to a limited extent, Belarus) are gradually evolving towards increased breadth (diversity) and depth (liquidity), however, they are still exposed to considerable cross-country volatility and interdependence spill-overs - especially in times of capital flight to more established asset classes (“safe havens”). Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs) have widely been censured for their undesirable political interference and chronic operational opacity. This paper demonstrates that in CEE, contrary to widespread perceptions attributable to developed markets, SWFs can act as natural and powerful risk mitigators (contributing to a more stable capital base and reduced systemic volatility). Such a proposition is premised on several factors specific to SWFs oriented to CEE. They comprise: strategic long-termism and patience in overcoming interim pricing deficiencies, commitments to elements of a broadly interpreted infrastructure, and absence of overt conflicts of interest with the CEE host economies. The paper, besides reviewing the utilitarianism of SWFs in the CEE’s risk mitigation context, highlights regulatory and technical barriers to more SWF funding for CEE. It also recommends policy measures to the CEE economies aimed at luring more host-friendly SWF investment into the region.