This paper presents the current state of knowledge concerning the genesis, properties and taxonomic position of soils developed from marine and marine-alluvial sediments in Poland, called “marsh soils”. They have not as yet been identified in the fifth edition of the Polish Soil Classification (2011). However, the author’s results demonstrate that, despite occupying only a small area along the Polish Baltic coast, these soils clearly show a distinct typological specificity. This confirms the need to include the marsh soils in the Polish classification system. Therefore, the creation a separate unit within the order of weakly-developed soils was proposed. This comprehensive proposal was fully compatible with the quantitative-genetic approach used in the fifth edition. However, this proposal may not be optimal in the context of a substantial modification of the Polish classification system, e.g. by the introduction of completely quantitative hierarchical key. Because of the close taxonomic relationships between marsh, alluvial and gley soils, it seems necessary to discuss the approach used in the current edition of the WRB classification (2015).
Piotr Hulisz, Arkadiusz Krawiec, Sylwia Pindral, Łukasz Mendyk and Kamila Pawlikowska
The article presents the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on the chemical and physical properties of surface water and groundwater in the area of the city of Inowrocław. It has been shown that the properties of the waters were most strongly affected by the specific geological structure (the city is located within the Zechstein salt dome) as well as the long-term influence of a salt mine and soda plant. The composition of most analysed samples was dominated by Ca2+, Na+ and Cl− ions. In places of heavy industrial activity, some water parameters were several time higher than permissible limit values according to Polish standards. It is concluded that, due to the threat to the city’s drinking groundwater resources and fertile soils, the surface water and groundwater in the area in question require permanent monitoring.
Piotr Hulisz, Adam Michalski, Michał Dąbrowski, Grzegorz Kusza and Leszek Łéczyński
The aim of this paper is to determine the impact of human activity on the soil formation at the mouth of the Vistula Cross-Cut (northern Poland). The detailed research was conducted in the test area (about 500 ha) for which the soil map was created. The three major soil belts were distinguished, grouping the soils formed on marine, aeolian and technogenic sediments, deposited both naturally and anthropogenically as a result of the hydrotechnical works. Initial soils, arenosols, gleysols, brackish marsh soils and industrial soils predominate across the study area. Most of them were characterized by high spatial diversity and multi-layering. Their properties reflected varied dynamics of the local environment on both sides of the river channel, greatly enhanced by the human activity. Based of the obtained results, some proposals concerning arenosols, marsh soils and industrial soils for the Polish Soil Classification (2011) were presented.
Piotr Hulisz, Wojciech Kwasowski, Jerzy Pracz and Ryszard Malinowski
This paper presents the state of knowledge on coastal acid sulphate soils in Poland. The properties of these soils are closely related to the influence of brackish water from the Baltic Sea, high accumulation of organic matter and human activity. The obtained results demonstrate that the sulphide accumulation in soils refers to a relatively small areas of the Polish coastal zone with the unique and very valuable habitats. They require an adequate regulation of the water relations to avoid the risk of strong soil acidification and environmental pollution by heavy metals. Currently, there are no relevant criteria for classification of acid sulphate soil materials in the Polish Soil Classification (2011). Therefore, based on the presented data, the authors proposed to identify these features at the lower classification level (for different soil types). The criteria for the Thionic and Sulfidic qualifiers used in the WRB classification (IUSS Working Group WRB 2015) could be accepted for this purpose.
Łukasz Mendyk, Piotr Hulisz, Grzegorz Kusza, Marcin Świtoniak, Leszek Gersztyn and Barbara Kalisz
This paper aims to assess the usefulness of magnetic susceptibility measurements in pedological studies of mill pond sediments. The study area includes the former Turznice mill pond basin located in the south-eastern part of the Grudziądz Basin. Four soil profiles were selected within the transect located along the longitudinal axis of the basin. The following soil properties were determined in the collected samples: bulk density, particle size distribution, pH, content of carbonates, approximate content of organic matter (LOI), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (Nt), and the pseudo-total contents of metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd). The obtained results were correlated with the specific (mass) magnetic susceptibility (χ). This study revealed that the variability of the soil cover in the basin was driven by different sedimentation conditions. The different composition of natural terrace deposits versus mill pond sediments has been well reflected in the magnetic properties. However, the possibility cannot be excluded that a pedogenic (gleyic) process is the key factor causing the vertical variability of magnetic properties in studied soils.
Przemysław Charzyński, Renata Bednarek, Andrzej Greinert, Piotr Hulisz and Łukasz Uzarowicz
Technosols are relatively young soil group in WRB soil system, and there is still a lot of to do to better understand processes taking place in these soils and to classify them in a proper way. The objectives of this paper were to (1) evaluate Technosol and 'technogenic' qualifiers for other Reference Soil Groups, and (2) propose new solutions which would improve the classification of technogenic soils in WRB. New qualifiers . Edific, Nekric, Misceric, Artefactic, Radioactivic and new specifier . Technic . are proposed to be added to keys to Technosols. Moreover, Salic and Sodic qualifiers should be also available for Technosols. Furthermore, the supplementation of definitions of thionic horizon and sulphidic material with reference to Technosols is also suggested
Cezary Kabała, Przemysław Charzyński, Jacek Chodorowski, Marek Drewnik, Bartłomiej Glina, Andrzej Greinert, Piotr Hulisz, Michał Jankowski, Jerzy Jonczak, Beata Łabaz, Andrzej Łachacz, Marian Marzec, Łukasz Mendyk, Przemysław Musiał, Łukasz Musielok, Bożena Smreczak, Paweł Sowiński, Marcin Świtoniak, Łukasz Uzarowicz and Jarosław Waroszewski
The sixth edition of the Polish Soil Classification (SGP6) aims to maintain soil classification in Poland as a modern scientific system that reflects current scientific knowledge, understanding of soil functions and the practical requirements of society. SGP6 continues the tradition of previous editions elaborated upon by the Soil Science Society of Poland in consistent application of quantitatively characterized diagnostic horizons, properties and materials; however, clearly referring to soil genesis. The present need to involve and name the soils created or naturally developed under increasing human impact has led to modernization of the soil definition. Thus, in SGP6, soil is defined as the surface part of the lithosphere or the accumulation of mineral and organic materials permanently connected to the lithosphere (through buildings or permanent constructions), coming from weathering or accumulation processes, originated naturally or anthropogenically, subject to transformation under the influence of soil-forming factors, and able to supply living organisms with water and nutrients. SGP6 distinguishes three hierarchical categories: soil order (nine in total), soil type (basic classification unit; 30 in total) and soil subtype (183 units derived from 62 unique definitions; listed hierarchically, separately in each soil type), supplemented by three non-hierarchical categories: soil variety (additional pedogenic or lithogenic features), soil genus (lithology/parent material) and soil species (soil texture). Non-hierarchical units have universal definitions that allow their application in various orders/types, if all defined requirements are met. The paper explains the principles, classification scheme and rules of SGP6, including the key to soil orders and types, explaining the relationships between diagnostic horizons, materials and properties distinguished in SGP6 and in the recent edition of WRB system as well as discussing the correlation of classification units between SGP6, WRB and Soil Taxonomy.