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Monika Gąsecka, Jerzy Stachowiak, Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Mikołaj Knaflewski and Piotr Goliński

Changes in Glucose, Fructose and Sucrose Contents in Storage Roots of Asparagus During Vegetation Period

The objective of the field experiment conducted during 2000-2002 was to determine changes in glucose, fructose and sucrose contents in storage roots of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) cv. ‘Thielim’ during vegetation period. The aim of the study was also to estimate the correlation between yield and the content of carbohydrates. Sum of glucose, fructose and sucrose contents (GFS) and sucrose contents in storage roots of asparagus decreased at the beginning and increased at the end of harvest. Generally glucose and fructose for carbohydrate contents increased, while that of sucrose decreased. A possitive correlation was observed for sucrose and GFS between asparagus spears and storage roots (r=0.821 and r=0.641, respectively). A negative correlation between the yield of spears and glucose, sucrose and GFS contents in storage roots was found (r=0.595, r=0.624, r=0.794, respectively). Positive correlations were found between total yield during harvest and year of cropping, average GFS content in storage roots during harvest, sum of radiation during harvest, while negative correlation between total yield and sum of average daily air temperature during harvest was found.

Open access

Kinga Drzewiecka, Klaudia Borowiak, Mirosław Mleczek, Iwona Zawada and Piotr Goliński

Cadmium and Lead Accumulation in Two Littoral Plants of Five Lakes in Poznan, Poland

We measured cadmium and lead concentrations in two littoral plants (Phragmites australis Cav. Trin ex. Steudel and Typha angustifolia L.) collected in June and September 2007 from five selected lakes in the Poznan city area, and also in sediment and water samples from the same places. We determined the metal concentrations in rhizomes and leaves, and in sediment and water from the littoral and near the bank zone. Only low levels of the heavy metals were found. Pb and Cd concentrations were higher in water collected from the bank zone than from the littoral zone. Pb and Cd accumulation was noted in sediments. Heavy metal levels were higher in rhizomes than in stems and leaves. The studied aquatic macrophytes may be bioaccumulators and bioindicators of Pb and Cd in freshwater in natural conditions, even when concentrations are low.

Open access

Monika Gąsecka, Jerzy Stachowiak, Włodzimierz Krzesiński, Mikołaj Knaflewski and Piotr Goliński

Correlations Between Asparagus Crop and the Year of Cropping, Day of Harvest, Sugar Contents in Storage Roots and Spears and Air Temperature

The study, carried out at the "Marcelin" Experimental Station in Poznan during harvest seasons 2000-2002, was focused on the determination of the correlation between daily yield of green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) and soluble sugar contents in spears and storage roots, temperature, the year of cropping and day of harvest.

A positive correlation between daily yield and the year of harvest, daily fructose content in storage roots and spears, sucrose content in spears and temperature was documented, in contrast to the negative correlation with glucose and sucrose contents in roots, glucose content in spears and daily yield.

Open access

Karolina Gromadzka, Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Joanna Świetlik, Jan Bocianowski and Piotr Goliński

Abstract

Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species in food and feed. The toxicity of ZEA and its metabolites is related to the chemical structure of the mycotoxin, which is similar to naturally occurring oestrogens. Currently, there is increasing awareness of the presence of fungi and their toxic metabolites in the aquatic environment. One of the sources of these compounds are the effluents from wastewater treatment plants. The average annual efficiency of zearalenone reduction in the Łęczyca plant in our three-year study was in the range from 51.35 to 69.70 %. The threeway analysis of variance (year, month, and kind of wastewater) shows that the main effects of all factors and all interactions between them were significant for zearalenone and dissolved organic carbon content. Our findings suggest that wastewater is not the main source of surface water pollution with zearalenone. Future research should investigate the means to reduce ZEA and its migration from the fields through prevention strategies such as breeding for crops, plant debris management (crop rotation, tillage), and/or chemical and biological control.

Open access

Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Lidia Irzykowska, Zbigniew Karolewski, Jan Bocianowski, Piotr Goliński and Zbigniew Weber

Mycotoxins Biosynthesis by Fusarium Oxysporum and F. Proliferatum Isolates of Asparagus Origin

The subject of this work was fumonisin B1 (FB1) and moniliformin (MON) biosynthesis by three isolates of Fusarium oxysporum and three isolates of F. proliferatum of asparagus spears origin. The cultures of fungi were grown on rice and asparagus media for 3 weeks at 20°C. Experiment was carried out in 3 replicates. FB1 and MON occurrence was evaluated with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses. Analysis of variance was carried out to determine biosynthesis of FB1 and MON by F. oxysporum and F. proliferatum.

FB1 was found in the amount up to 2012.8 μg/g in cultures of F. proliferatum on rice and in a very small amount in two cultures on asparagus medium. F. oxysporum did not produce FB1 on any of the media. MON was biosynthesized by two the same isolates of F. oxysporum in the amount up to 182.8 μg/g on rice and up to 743.3 μg/g on asparagus medium and one isolate (different on each medium) of F. proliferatum.

Open access

Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Karolina Gromadzka, Jan Bocianowski, Paulina Pluta and Piotr Goliński

Abstract

The aim of this study was to establish a relation between zearalenone contamination of crops in the Polish province of Wielkopolska and its occurrence in aquatic ecosystems close by the crop fields. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as drainage ditches, wells, or watercourses located in four agricultural areas. Moreover, control water samples were collected from the Bogdanka river, which was located outside the agricultural areas and near an urban area. Cereal samples were collected in the harvest season from each agricultural area close to tested water bodies. Zearalenone (ZEA) was found in all water and cereal samples. The highest concentrations were recorded in the postharvest season (September to October) and the lowest in the winter and spring. Mean ZEA concentrations in water ranged between 1.0 ng L-1 and 80.6 ng L-1, and in cereals from 3.72 ng g-1 to 28.97 ng g-1. Our results confirm that mycotoxins are transported to aquatic systems by rain water through soil.

Open access

Adam Perczak, Piotr Goliński, Marcin Bryła and Agnieszka Waśkiewicz

Abstract

Mycotoxins are produced by some fungal species of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium and are common contaminants of a wide range of food commodities. Numerous strategies are used to minimise fungal growth and mycotoxin contamination throughout the food chain. This review addresses the use of lactic acid bacteria, which can inhibit fungal growth and participate in mycotoxin degradation and/or removal from contaminated food. Being beneficial for human and animal health, lactic acid bacteria have established themselves as an excellent solution to the problem of mycotoxin contamination, yet in practice their application in removing mycotoxins remains a challenge to be addressed by future research.

Open access

Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak, Tomasz P. Kurowski, Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Piotr Goliński, Arkadiusz Stępień, Małgorzata Głosek-Sobieraj and Adam Perczak

Abstract

The fungi of the genus Fusarium cause Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease that reduces grain yield and quality. They also produce mycotoxins which may pose a serious threat to human and animal health. This study investigated the effects of NPK fertilisation, foliar application of Cu, Zn, and Mn, applied separately and in combination, and of the Nano-Gro® organic growth stimulator on the occurrence of FHB in cultivar Dańkowskie Diament rye based on the mycological analysis of kernels and on the concentrations of Fusarium mycotoxins in grain. The severity of FHB caused by seven species of the genus Fusarium was influenced by weather conditions in the analysed growing seasons. The applied fertilisation and the Nano-Gro® organic growth stimulator exerted varied effects on FHB development and the biosynthesis of Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, zearalenone and fumonisins) in grain. The greatest reduction in deoxynivalenol and nivalenol concentrations was noted in 2013, and the levels of moniliformin were lower in treated samples than in absolute control (untreated) samples in both years of the study. The severity of FHB positively correlated with the concentrations of zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and moniliformin in the grain samples. Greater accumulation of ergosterol was noted in the rye grain harvested in 2013 than in 2012, and fertiliser treatment led to higher ergosterol concentrations than did control treatment.