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Katarzyna Konopka, Ewa Pisula, Emilia Łojek and Piotr Fudalej

Abstract

The level of metaphor comprehension and interpretation was investigated in a sample of children with cleft palate (CP), aged 6;0-8;11, and healthy controls matched with age, sex, socioeconomic status, and IQ level. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised (WISC-R) was used to evaluate the children’s cognitive functioning, and the metaphor tests from a modified version of the Right Hemisphere Language Battery - Polish version (RHLB-PL) were used to assess comprehension of figurative language. The CP and control groups differed significantly in Verbal IQ values and in performance in the Vocabulary test, Comprehension test, Picture Metaphor Explanation test, and Written Metaphor Explanation test. In both metaphor explanation tests, children with CP gave fewer responses than controls. The results suggest no differences between children with CP and controls in understanding figurative language, although they point to weaker performance in communicating responses and producing statements in the CP children group.

Open access

Hanna Mańkowska-Pliszka, Halina Przychodzeń, Michał Nawrot, Sylwia Tarka, Piotr Wasylczyk, Agnieszka Dąbkowska, Marcin Fudalej, Ewa Rzeźnicka, Dagmara Haładaj and Aleksandra Pliszka

Abstract

The first study of modified human remains using an electron microscope was carried out at the end of the 1950 and in 1979 the first result of the study involving a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was published for the first time. The study was mainly focused on the structure of tissues and cells. With the help of this technique cell and tissue elements, viruses and bacterial endospores as well as the structure of epithelium and the collagen contents of dermis were identified and described. In the above-mentioned case the object of the study using a SEM was a free part of the right hand (forearm with the dorsal and palmar parts of hand) of unknown origin, with signs of mummification revealed during microscopic analysis. Our study was aimed at finding the answer to the question if the mummification of the studied limb was natural or intentional, and if the study using a SEM could link the anonymous remains with ancient Egypt.