The aim of the study was to investigate gender-specific effects of a maternal treatment with dexamethasone (DEX) at multiple maximum therapeutic doses during the last 25 d of pregnancy on the bone tissue metabolism in neonatal piglets. BMD and BMC were measured. The geometry, histomorphometry, and mechanical properties of bones were determined. The assessment of selected hormones, cytokines, and amino acids was performed in 35-day-old piglets. DEX administered prenatally inhibited neonatal bone development, as well as bone mineral density, and geometrical and mechanical properties of bones. Neonatal GC-induced bone loss was linked with disturbed somatotropic axis function and decreased serum concentration of GH in male piglets and decreased concentration of IGF-1 in females. Prenatal DEX treatment led to an increase in the concentration of insulin and enhanced activity of bone specific alkaline phosphatase in piglets of both genders.
Copper (Cu) is required for all basic biochemical and physiological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different sources of dietary Cu on the histomorphometry of liver and jejunal epithelium in adult rats. Male 12-week-old rats were used in a 12-week experiment. The control diet provided the required Cu level from sulfate, and other two diets were supplemented with Cu as a glycine complex at 75% and 100% of daily requirement. Basal hematological and plasma biochemical analyses were also performed. There was no effect of Cu supplementation on the liver weight and the plasma and liver Cu concentration. Histomorphometric analysis of liver tissue showed an increase in the collagen amount and intracellular space in the group supplemented with Cu amino acid. Cu given in the organic form at 100% of daily requirement decreased the muscular and submucosa layer and the crypt depth. In turn, organic copper given at 75% of daily requirement did not influence the intestinal morphology. Dietary Cu given to adult rats as copper sulfate or a glycine complex meeting 100% of the daily requirement appears to be less harmful with regard to intestinal epithelium than when given as a glycine complex at 100% of daily requirement.
Introduction: Thyroid hormones play a major role in the regulation of testicular maturation and growth and in the control of Sertoli and Leydig cell functions in adulthood. When naturally occurring, hypothyroidism causes male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and Sertoli cell function disorders, but when iatrogenic and methimazole-induced its influence on the pituitary-testicular axis function with respect to Sertoli cells is poorly known.
Material and Methods: Male adult Wistar rats (n = 14) were divided into two groups: E – taking methimazole orally for 60 days, and C – control animals. After 60 d, the concentrations in serum of testosterone, follicle-stimulating and luteinising hormones, and inhibins A and B were measured. Testicles were examined morphologically: the apoptotic Sertoli cell percentage (ASC%) and number of these cells functional per tubular mm2 (FSCN/Tmm2) were calculated.
Results: In group E, inhibin A was higher while inhibin B was lower than in group C. ASC% was higher and FSCN/Tmm2 lower in group E than in group C.
Conclusion: A specific modulation of Sertoli cell function in the course of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism leads to a simultaneous concentration increase in inhibin A and decrease in B. Inhibin A might share responsibility for pituitary-testicular axis dysfunction and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in this model of hypothyroidism.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of a standard inclusion level of inorganic zinc to organic form at lowered level on the bone development in growing male Ross 308 chickens, assessed on the basis of mechanical, geometric, and histomorphometric parameters of limb bone, and bone zinc content, as well as hormones of somatotropic axis. A total of 80 one-day-old male Ross broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 2 groups of 40 chickens each. The control group was fed with a corn-soybean meal basal diet providing the recommended zinc amount (100 mg×kg-1) from zinc oxide, and the experimental group was supplemented with glycinate chelate providing 25% of the total requirement of the microelement recommended for Ross 308 broiler chicks. The mechanical and histomorphometric parameters and geometry of tibia were determined as well as the serum concentration of growth hormone, IGF-1, osteocalcin and leptin. The serum concentration of Zn, Cu, Ca, Mg, Fe, P and zinc bone content were determined. The results showed that birds fed with the diet supplemented with organic zinc in the amount of 25% of the recommended amount did not exhibit weight and general growth disorders and had an unchanged concentration of growth hormone, leptin, and IGF-1. The serum concentration of Zn, Cu, Ca, Mg, Fe, P did not differ between groups. The contents of zinc detected in bones in the controls and the group supplemented with the organic source did not differ as well. Although tibial mechanics and geometry remained unchanged, histomorphometry revealed a disproportionately large osteoporotic bone. The changes in tibial trabecular bone as a result of the diet supplemented with glycinate chelate only in 25% of the total requirement of the microelement recommended for Ross 308 broiler chicks seems to be insufficient for tibia development.
Introduction: The aim of the study was to investigate the mechanical and geometric properties as well as bone tissue and mineral density of long bones in mink dams exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON) since one day after mating, throughout gestation (ca. 46 d) and lactation to pelt harvesting. Material and Methods: Thirty clinically healthy multiparous minks (Neovison vison) of the standard dark brown type were used. After the mating, the minks were randomly assigned into two equal groups: nontreated control group and DON group fed wheat contaminated naturally with DON at a concentration of 1.1 mg·kg-1 of feed. Results: The final body weight and weight and length of the femur did not differ between the groups. However, DON contamination decreased mechanical endurance of the femur. Furthermore, DON reduced the mean relative wall thickness and vertical wall thickness of the femur, while vertical cortical index, midshaft volume, and cross-sectional moment of inertia increased. Finally, DON contamination did not alter bone tissue density, bone mineral density, or bone mineral content, but decreased the values of all investigated structural and material properties. Conclusion: DON at applied concentration probably intensified the process of endosteal resorption, which was the main reason for bone wall thinning and the weakening of the whole bone.
Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of deoxynivalenol (DON), given alone or with bentonite (which eliminates mycotoxicity) in the diet of mink dams throughout mating, pregnancy, and lactation period to pelt harvesting, on the mechanical properties and geometry of their long bones.
Material and Methods: The minks were randomly assigned into two groups: a control group (not supplemented with DON, n = 15) and a group fed naturally DON-contaminated wheat and divided into three sub-groups (each sub-group n = 15), depending on bentonite dose: 0 M – sub-group fed naturally DON-contaminated wheat at a concentration of 3.7 mg kg−1 alone; 2 M – sub-group fed naturally DON-contaminated wheat at a concentration of 3.7 mg kg−1 and bentonite at a concentration of 2 kg 1000 kg−1; 0.5 M – sub-group fed naturally DON-contaminated wheat at a concentration of 3.7 mg kg−1 and bentonite at a concentration of 0.5 kg 1000 kg−1.
Results: The DON treatment reduced the length of the femur compared to the control group and reduced the bone weight dependently on the amount of bentonite supplementation. However, DON treatment reduced the MRWT and CI of the femur, irrespective of the bentonite supplementation, compared to the control. The total BTD and BMC decreased in all DON-treated groups (irrespective of the bentonite supplementation). Furthermore, the densitometric analysis showed that the main changes in BMD and BMC indicated bone loss in the proximal and distal parts of bone covering the trabecular bone; whereas when bentonite was given at the dose of 2 kg 1000 kg−1 an increase in the whole BMD and BMC was observed in the femoral midshaft.
Conclusion: Analysis of the geometrical parameters seems to indicate that endosteal resorption was delayed after bentonite supplementation. The addition of bentonite diminished the DON action on bone homeostasis in the mink dams. Thus bentonite could prevent DON-induced bone loss in a dose-dependent manner.
Administration of the amino acid copper (Cu) complex ensures higher Cu bioavailability through enhanced absorption from intestine and decreases the dietary Cu level, compared to the recommended Cu dose. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Cu-low diet on the bone development in adolescent rats. Male rats at the age of 6 weeks were used in the 12-week experiment. The control diet provided the required Cu level from sulfate (S-Cu) and other diets were supplemented with Cu as a glycine complex (Cu-Gly) at 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of daily requirement. After the 12-week treatment, rats from the Cu-Gly100 group were heavier, compared to the other groups. The copper and calcium plasma and bone concentrations of the rats in the groups treated with the organic form of Cu (irrespective of its dose) was similar to the control values noted in the rats administered with S-Cu. A decrease in the femur weight and length was observed in the Cu-Gly75 and Cu-Gly50 groups. Cu-Gly increased the cross section area, mean relative wall thickness, and cortical index only in the Cu-Gly75 group. A decrease in the ultimate strength, elastic stress, and ultimate stress was noted in the Cu-Gly100 and Cu-Gly75 groups. In the Cu-Gly50 group, a decrease in the ultimate stress and an increase in the maximal elastic strength and bending moment were noted. Adolescent rats treated with Cu-Gly at a Cu-deficient level exhibited a dose-dependent strongly osteoporotic cancellous bone. Lower proteoglycan content was found in groups fed the Cu-low diet. In the control rats supplemented with S-Cu, there was no evident gradient in safranin O staining. It is difficult to indicate which dose of the Cu-Gly complex among the investigated Cu-poor diet exerted a positive effect on bone metabolism. It appears that the use of this Cu-Gly complex at a significantly reduced dose than S-Cu at the recommended dose did not inhibit the development of bone and hyaline cartilage in adolescent rats.
The aim of this study was to define the effects of diet containing the same mineral content of mineral salt or amino acid chelate, and diet containing various levels of Cu amino acid chelate on liver histomorphometry in growing rats. Male Wistar rats were used in the 12th week experiment. The control group (n = 12) was fed standard diet, which provided Cu in an inorganic form at the level required for rats. The experimental animals were divided into four groups (each n = 12) depending on different levels (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% covered daily demand) of Cu supplementation in chelated form. Cu content was determined in the liver tissue and blood plasma. Immunohistochemical staining with caspase-3 antibody was performed. Microscopic assessment of the liver structure indicated that Cu supplementation did not change the liver architecture. However, histomorphometric analysis revealed a significant increase in the number of nuclei, total cell number, and multinucleated hepatocytes in rats supplemented with the organic form of Cu at the level of 25% compared with the control group. There was a considerable increase in the number of apoptotic cells and ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes, especially in groups supplemented with organic form of Cu covering the daily demand in 100% and 75%, in comparison to control group. Moreover, there was no Cu deposition in the liver and changes in Cu content in blood. Cu provided in the diet in organic form covering an amount of its minimum daily demand in 25% appears to be the least harmful with regard to the liver. It indicates that there is a need to establish the level of diet supplementation with Cu amino acid chelates.
Faba bean (FB) seeds can be a good protein-energy component in animal feed. However, the presence of anti-nutritional substances is a negative feature of FB seeds. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of different levels of unprocessed FB seeds in feed on the gut-bone axis and metabolic profile in broilers. Ninety six, 1-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly selected to one of the 3 dietary treatments (32 chickens in each, divided into 8 pens with 4 birds per each pen): the control group fed standard diet with soybean meal and without FB seeds, group I fed 8/15% (starter/grower) of high-tannin FB seeds, and group II fed 16/22% of high-tannin FB seeds. Bone mechanical examination, hematological and serum biochemical analysis as well histomorphometry of small intestine and liver tissue were performed. The intake of high-tannin FB seeds, irrespective of their amount, did not alter the bone geometric, mechanical and densitometric parameters nor influenced basal hematological parameters, however it resulted in: decreased serum concentration of total cholesterol and calcium; a reduced longitudinal myenteron of small intestine; increased mucosa and villus epithelium thickness, villus length, thickness and absorptive surface in duodenum; increased number of active crypts in jejunum; unchanged collagen area, intercellular space, and total cell number in the liver; decreased number of multinuclear hepatocyte cells. Moreover, the livers of birds fed the higher dose of high-tannin FB seeds had lymphocytic infiltrates in portal tracts and sinusoids. Feeding of unprocessed high-tannin FB seeds exerted an influence on the gastrointestinal tract by increased absorptive surface. In conclusion, the dietary inclusion of unprocessed high-tannin FB seeds had no negative effects on broiler growth, tibial bone mechanical properties and intestinal characteristics. Unprocessed high-tannin FB seeds may be used in broiler diets, but their dietary levels should not be higher than those discussed.
Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are toxic metals occurring commonly in the human environment that show mutagenic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Dietary components could prevent heavy metals intoxication by reducing their accumulation in the body. The purpose of the study was to check possible protective effect of regular consumption of white, black, red, or green tea on bone metabolism during long-term exposure to Pb and Cd in adult rats. The 12 week-long exposure to Pb and Cd (50 mg Pb and 7 mg Cd/kg of the diet) in a rat model was studied. Twelve-week-old adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a negative control group (Pb and Cd exposure without tea), a control (without Pb and Cd and teas), and groups co-exposed to Pb and Cd and supplemented with green, red, black, or white tea (n=12 each group). The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. The co-exposure to Pb and Cd led to the increase of bone resorption depending on the tea treatment, which was confirmed by the mechanical testing and histomorphometrical examination of cancellous bone. Pb and Cd influenced mechanical strength, reduced the densitometric and geometric parameters and the thickness of growth plate and articular cartilages. Concluding, white tea exerted the best protective effect on bone tissue and hyaline cartilage against heavy metal action.