The article presents the possibilities of using easily accessible and inexpensive educational sets in scientific research and the process of robotics education. Such kits allow the exploration of theoretical and practical knowledge taking into account aspects of engineering, such as: mechanics, drive systems, sensor systems, control and programming of robots. Models of robots built from inexpensive components can also be used to test new solutions in the field of construction or control algorithms before they are used in real applications. As an example, the model of the palletizing manipulator for self-assembly was shown, the control of which was based on the Arduino Uno controller, while the drives were implemented using low-cost hobby-grade servos. For the kinematic structure of this manipulator, the forward and inverse kinematics task for the position has been discussed. This constituted the basis for the development of a manual control algorithm implemented in the controller – using a joystick and programmed – based on the data sent to the controller using serial communication from a PC. The article presents the results of the computer simulation of the manipulator kinematics, the hardware and software implementation of the robot model and the effects of its operation. The possibility of expanding the control system with additional elements to increase its functionality was indicated.
Excavation, especially of hard rocks, using boom-type road headers is a source of strong vibrations of the boom in which they are equipped. These vibrations are transferred through construction nodes further to the turntable and the body of the road header. On the one hand, they are of great importance from the point of view of the durability and the reliability of the mining machine. On the other hand, they affect the variability of the parameters at which the process of cutting the heading face surface of a drilled roadway or tunnel is carried out. For the purpose of determining the vibration intensity of the boom of the road header a photogrammetry system based on two high-speed cameras Phantom Miro LC 120 was used. During the experimental investigations of the cutting process of a cement-sand block using the R-130 road header, the boom and turntable movements were recorded. The analysis of the time-lapse pictures of the recorded footage obtained from the high-speed cameras using dedicated TEMA 3D software allowed to determine the spatial trajectory of movement of the boom and the turntable during the cutting of the massive with specified mechanical properties with set values of the parameters of this process. Basing on the time courses of the coordinates of the boom and turntable characteristic points, the courses of the actual boom swinging speed and acceleration components of its vibrations were determined. The intensity of these vibrations was related to the conditions of the cutting process.
Ensuring the compliance of the finished product with the project during the manufacturing of cutting heads/drums of the mining machines, largely determines the efficiency of rock mining, especially hard-to-cut rocks. The manufacturing process of these crucial elements of cutting machines is being robotized in order to ensure high accuracy and repeatability. This determines, among others the need to assess in real-time the degree of the approach of pick holders positioned by the industrial robot to the side surface of the working unit of the cutting machine in their target position. This problem is particularly important when in the manufacturing process are used the bodies of decommissioned cutting heads/drums, from which old pick holders have been removed. The shape and external dimensions of these hulls, unless they are subjected to regeneration, may differ quite significantly from the nominal ones. The publication, on the example of a road header cutting head, presents the procedure for automatically identifying and indexing markers displayed on its side surface, recorded on measuring photos by two digital cameras of a 3D vision system. Experimental research of the developed method was carried out using the KUKA VisionTech vision system installed on the test stand in the robotics laboratory of the Department of Mining Mechanization and Robotization at the Faculty of Mining, Safety Engineering and Industrial Automation of the Silesian University of Technology. Data processing was carried out in the Matlab environment using the libraries of the Image Processing Toolbox. The functions provided in this library were used in the developed algorithm, implemented in the software. This algorithm allows automatic identification of markers located in the images of the side surface of the cutting head. This is the basis for determining their location in space. The publication presents a method of segmenting images recorded by cameras into homogeneous areas. The method of separating interesting areas from the image by comparison to the pattern was presented. Also shown is the method of the automatic numbering of mutually matching pairs of markers on photos from two cameras included in the vision system depending on the spatial orientation of the marker grid in the measuring images.