Piotr Brodzki, Adam Brodzki, Łukasz Kurek, Jan Marczuk and Marcin R. Tatara
The aim of the study was to evaluate selected parameters representing reproductive system conditions in cows suffering from left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA). Eighty Holstein- Friesian cows were divided into control (n=40) and LDA (n=40) groups. Haematological and biochemical evaluations were performed in the control group and in cows with LDA before and after surgical treatment. Cytological and ultrasound examinations of the uterus were performed at 21 (baseline), 35 and 63 days after parturition. In the LDA group, significantly decreased concentrations of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, copper, potassium, glucose and total cholesterol were stated, while aspartate aminotransferase activity, white blood cell count, erythrocyte count, haematocrit, haemoglobin content and concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate, free fatty acids and bilirubin were increased (all P<0.05). Percentage of neutrophils in the uterus and the uterus diameter were increased in the LDA group at the baseline and at 35 days after parturition (P<0.001). The neutrophil percentage was also increased at 63 days after parturition in the LDA group (P<0.001). Number of days to first oestrus, number of services per conception and calving-to-conception interval were higher in the LDA group (P<0.001). This study has shown reproductive system changes and impaired fertility in dairy cows as the consequence of LDA occurrence. Thus, LDA treatment in cows should be combined with diagnostic evaluation of the uterus and reproductive system to improve reproductive performance. As indicated in the cytological examination, a subclinical inflammatory process may last even 60 days after parturition, leading to substantial impairment of reproductive function in dairy cows.
Adam Brodzki, Piotr Brodzki, Maria Szpetnar and Marcin R. Tatara
The aim of the study was to determine serum free amino acid concentration in male dogs suffering from benign and malignant perianal tumours. Serum concentrations of cysteic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, aspartic acid, glycine, γ-aminobutyric acid, tryptophan, methionine, arginine, taurine, threonine, tyrosine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine were significantly changed in dogs suffering from benign and/or malignant tumours when compared to the control group (P<0.05). Serum concentration of serine, phenylalanine, lysine and histidine was not influenced in dogs with neoplastic disease (P>0.05). The evaluation of serum free amino acid concentration, has shown that threonine, glutamic acid, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and glycine have the highest diagnostic and prognostic value in dogs suffering from benign and malignant perianal tumours. Highly diagnostic and prognostic value in relation to benign tumour growth was also found while evaluating branched chain and acidic groups of amino acids. Serine, phenylalanine, lysine, and histidine, as well as alkaline amino acids were proved not to have diagnostic and prognostic value in dogs with the tumours. Thus, the evaluation of free amino acid concentration may serve diagnostic purposes and help in tumour malignancy differentiation. The elaborated experimental model may be used in further studies on neoplastic disease development and monitoring of applied treatment efficiency.
Piotr Brodzki, Krzysztof Niemczuk, Krzysztof Kostro, Adam Brodzki, Łukasz Kurek and Jan Marczuk
There were two aims of this study. One was to evaluate the postpartum state of the reproductive system in cows based on ultrasonography, bacterial culture, and cytological examination of the uterus. The other was to determine whether postpartum endometritis affects the subsequent state of the endometrium, and, in consequence, selected reproductive parameters in cows. The study was conducted on 60 cows: the experimental group of 30 cows with endometritis, and 30 cows free of uterine inflammation (control). The percentage of leukocytes in both groups was similar only on day 5 of postpartum. In all subsequent tests (26, 40, 61 d postpartum), the percentage of leukocytes in the experimental group was statistically significantly higher than in the control (P < 0.001), both in samples collected with a brush and in lavage samples. Involution of the uterus in the experimental group was also slower (P < 0.001). The analysed reproductive parameters were markedly less favourable in the experimental group than in the control. The study showed that postpartum inflammation of the uterus can persist for a long time in the form of endometritis, causing substantial deterioration of reproductive parameters in cows. The authors suggest that cytological evaluation of the uterus, preferably using a brush, should be performed as soon as possible after parturition, even before day 21, up to which time puerperal metritis may still persist. Evaluation of the inflammatory process based on the number of leukocytes and the quality of endometrial cells is important.
Piotr Brodzki, Adam Brodzki, Łukasz Kurek, Jan Marczuk and Marcin R. Tatara
The aim of the study was to examine cytological changes in the uterus in cows during the follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle, as well as to compare two different methods (brush and flushing) used for cytological material collection and to evaluate their usefulness for monitoring of the endometrium. Ovarian cycle phases were confirmed by ultrasound and by the level of sex hormones (17-β-estradiol and progesterone). The following types of cells were identified in the cytological smears: type I - surface cells; type II - intermediate cells; type III - basal cells; polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs); L - lymphocytes. The number of type I and III cells was statistically significantly higher in the follicular phase than in the luteal phase, both in smears prepared using a brush (P<0.001) and by uterine flush (P=0.003). The number of type II cells was statistically significantly higher in the luteal phase than in the follicular phase in both methods (P<0.001). The results of the study show that phases of the ovarian cycle in cows can be identified based on changes in the quality and percentage of different types of endometrial cells in a cytological examination.
Adam Brodzki, Piotr Brodzki, Marcin R. Tatara and Krzysztof Kostro
The aim of the study was to determine total antioxidative capacity (TAC) and zinc concentration in serum of dogs suffering from perianal tumours just before the start of the antihormonal treatment (AHT) and one and six months later. The study was performed on 45 dogs divided into two groups: control group suffering from non-malignant tumours (N = 24) and a group with malignant neoplastic changes (N = 21). Serum TAC and zinc concentrations were measured using photometric and atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods. Six months after the start of the AHT, TAC was significantly lower by 10.6% in dogs with malignant tumours when compared to controls (P = 0.03). In the non-malignant group, serum zinc concentration was higher before the treatment than in the malignant group, while the opposite results were observed six months later (P < 0.001). In the non-malignant group, gradually decreasing values of serum zinc concentration at each stage of the investigation were observed, while the opposite results were obtained in the malignant group (P < 0.05). The obtained results indicate that malignant neoplastic process is associated with significantly reduced TAC. Determination of serum zinc concentration in dogs with non-malignant and malignant perianal tumours may have practical diagnostic and prognostic values and may serve towards increasing the effectiveness of AHT monitoring.
Piotr Brodzki, Adam Brodzki, Łukasz Kurek, Maria Szpetnar and Mariola Bochniarz
The aim of the study was a comparative analysis of uterine horn diameter, calcium and magnesium concentrations in blood serum and uterine washings in cows both with and without endometritis. The study was performed on 28 cows at 5, 22 and 42 DP (day post partum), of which 14 cows had been diagnosed with endometritis and the other 14 had no endometritis. The animals were selected based on clinical symptoms and cytological examination. Uterine horn diameter was determined in both examined groups of cows using an ultrasonographic device. The level of calcium and magnesium in the blood serum and uterine washings, and protein in uterine washings was determined using a BS-160 Mindray analyzer. Uterus diameter was similar in both examined groups of cows only at 5 DP, and on subsequent days of examination this parameter was higher in the endometritis group compared to the control (P<0.001). Calcium levels in the blood serum of cows with endometritis were lower than in cows without endometritis, both at 22 DP (P<0.001) and at 42 DP (P=0.004). The levels of calcium, magnesium and total proteins in uterine washings were higher in cows with endometritis compared to the group without endometritis, both at 22 and at 42 DPP (P<0.001). The results of this study confirm that the process of uterine involution is slower in cows with endometritis compared to cows without endometritis, and the myometrium of inflamed uterus does not utilize sufficient amounts of calcium and magnesium, which means that the concentrations of these elements in uterine fluid are higher than in cows without endometritis.
Mariola Bochniarz, Władysław Wawron, Marek Szczubiał, Piotr Brodzki, Tomasz Piech and Roland Kusy
The aim of the present study was to determine virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from subclinical mastitis in cows. The material consisted of 42 isolates of S. xylosus obtained from 276 samples of milk collected from cows with subclinical mastitis. The isolates were obtained from the udder secretions of 33 cows from farms in the Lublin region (Poland). S. xylosus was found in 15.2% of tested milk samples. The study did not reveal any macroscopic changes in the milk or symptoms in the cow’s body. The number of somatic cells in milk samples ranged from 245,000 to 416,000/ml of milk (on average 268,000/ml of milk). The ability to produce slime was observed in 42.9% of S. xylosus isolates. None of the tested isolates demonstrated the ability to produce protease or cause haemolysis. Five isolates of S. xylosus (11.9%) were classified to the methicillin-resistant group. The mecA gene was not found in any of these isolates. The enzyme β-lactamase was detected in 28.6% of S. xylosus isolates. The highest efficacy against S. xylosus was demonstrated for cephalosporin antibiotics: cefacetrile and cefoperazone (80.1% and 76.2% of susceptible isolates of S. xylosus, respectively). A significant quantity of isolates was resistant to streptomycin, linkomycin, penicillin and neomycin (approximately 10% of susceptible isolates of S. xylosus).
Leszek Krakowski, Przemysław Bartoszek, Izabela Krakowska, Anna Stachurska, Tomasz Piech, Piotr Brodzki and Zygmunt Wrona
Introduction: Pregnancy is a physiological state in which the immune system undergoes certain changes. On the one hand, by depleting cell defence mechanisms, it favours development and maintenance of the pregnancy. At the same time cells of the immune system ensure resistance to many risk factors, including infectious agents.
Material and Methods: The study was carried out on 24 Polish Konik breed mares which were divided into two equal groups. The first group (group I) included mares living in the reserve. The second group (group II) comprised mares maintained under conventional conditions in the stables. The blood samples were collected for the first time in the perinatal period, i.e. 2 weeks before parturition (trial 0), then within the first 24 h after delivery, and then on 7th and 21st day after foaling. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte expressing TCD4+, TCD8+, CD2+, and MHC class II antigens was performed.
Results: Before the delivery, in group I there was a significantly higher CD4:CD8 ratio compared to group II (P ≤0.05). Similarly, significantly increased CD4:CD8 ratio in group I was noted within 24 h after parturition (P ≤0.001) and it was also observed on 7th day (P ≤0.03) and 21st day after foaling (P ≤0.02). In the first 24 h after parturition, a significant decline of lymphocytes CD8+ (P ≤0.02) was noted. No significant differences in terms of lymphocytes CD2+ and CD3+ were observed. Expression of MHC-II molecules before and after the parturition was higher in group I compared to group II; however, the difference between the groups was not significant.
Conclusion: The results obtained indicate that mares living in the reserve display higher activity of cell defence mechanisms.
Piotr Brodzki, Adam Brodzki, Krzysztof Kostro, Łukasz Kurek, Jan Marczuk and Leszek Krakowski
The experiment was conducted on 30 Holstein-Friesian cows: 10 cows in the follicular phase of the cycle and in the luteal phase 10 d later, 10 cows with follicular cysts, and 10 with luteal cysts. The presence of the ovarian structures was confirmed by ultrasonography. Serum levels of progesterone and 17β-oestradiol were tested with ELISA. Samples for cytological examination were collected from the uterus of all cows using a cytological brush. Following staining, the smears were evaluated in terms of quality and percentages of endometrial cells. In the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle, cells of type A - superficial cells (64.6 ± 4.48) were proportionally the largest group of cells. Cells of type C - basal cells (19.8 ± 2.75) were also present. In the luteal phase, the highest percentage of cells was of type B - intermediate cells (76.9 ± 4.26). When follicular cysts were present on the ovaries, the cytology resembled the follicular phase of the cycle, but with many younger type C cells (33.1 ± 4.11). In the case of luteal cysts on the ovaries, the cytology was similar to that of the luteal phase of the cycle, however with a lower percentage of type B cells (58.1 ± 5.71), and a slightly higher percentage of the other types. The differences in the cytological image of the uterus when different ovarian structures are present, depend on the hormonal activity of those structures. Due to the lack of literature data, the results of the study are important as a model, and may substantially facilitate identification of phases of the oestrus cycle, or the pathologies described, as well as indicate the current status of the endometrium