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Open access

Przemysław Tkaczyk, Wiesław Bednarek, Sławomir Dresler, Jaromir Krzyszczak, Piotr Baranowski and Cezary Sławiński

Abstract

In the years 2008-2011, an environmental study was conducted for Polish soils, focusing on the south-eastern Poland soils, as they exhibit significant acidification. This study aimed at assessing the current pHKCl and the supply of basic macro- (P, K, Mg and S-SO4) and microelements (B, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in the collected soil samples, and also at determining their relationship with the soil agronomic category, humus content and pH class. Soil reaction and humus and macronutrient content were positively correlated with the amount of colloidal clay and particles < 0.02 mm. In the majority of cases, the macro-element content in the soil was positively correlated with soil pH and humus content. As for microelements, a usually significant and positive correlation was found between the soil agronomic category and the content of manganese, iron and zinc, whereas for the content of boron and copper, no such relationship was observed. A significant and positive correlation between soil reaction and the content of manganese, iron and boron was also found. Such correlations were not observed in relation to copper and zinc content. Statistical analysis indicated that the content of boron and manganese depended to the greatest extent on the investigated physicochemical properties.

Open access

Małgorzata Murat, Iwona Malinowska, Holger Hoffmann and Piotr Baranowski

Abstract

Meteorological time series are used in modelling agrophysical processes of the soil-plant-atmosphere system which determine plant growth and yield. Additionally, long-term meteorological series are used in climate change scenarios. Such studies often require forecasting or projection of meteorological variables, eg the projection of occurrence of the extreme events. The aim of the article was to determine the most suitable exponential smoothing models to generate forecast using data on air temperature, wind speed, and precipitation time series in Jokioinen (Finland), Dikopshof (Germany), Lleida (Spain), and Lublin (Poland). These series exhibit regular additive seasonality or non-seasonality without any trend, which is confirmed by their autocorrelation functions and partial autocorrelation functions. The most suitable models were indicated by the smallest mean absolute error and the smallest root mean squared error.

Open access

Anna Siedliska, Monika Zubik, Piotr Baranowski and Wojciech Mazurek

Abstract

The suitability of the hyperspectral transmittance imaging technique was assessed in terms of detecting the internal intrusions (pits and their fragments) in cherries. Herein, hyperspectral transmission images were acquired in the visible and near-infrared range (450-1000 nm) from pitted and intact cherries of three popular cultivars: ‘Łutówka’, ‘Pandy 103’, and ‘Groniasta’, differing by soluble solid content. The hyperspectral transmittance data of fresh cherries were used to determine the influence of differing soluble solid content in fruit tissues on pit detection effectiveness. Models for predicting the soluble solid content of cherries were also developed. The principal component analysis and the second derivative pre-treatment of the hyperspectral data were used to construct the supervised classification models. In this study, five classifiers were tested for pit detection. From all the classifiers studied, the best prediction accuracies for the whole pit or pit fragment detection were obtained via the backpropagation neural networks model (87.6% of correctly classified instances for the training/test set and 81.4% for the validation set). The accuracy of distinguishing between drilled and intact cherries was close to 96%. These results showed that the hyperspectral transmittance imaging technique is feasible and useful for the non-destructive detection of pits in cherries.

Open access

Konrád Deák, Tamás Szigedi, Zoltán Pék, Piotr Baranowski and Lajos Helyes

Abstract

A rapid non-destructive method for profiling tomato carotenoids was developed using NIR spectrometry. One hundred and twenty tomato samples were produced at the Experimental Farm of Szent István University in Gödöllő (Hungary). The sample preparation was based on homogenization. The mixed samples were scanned with a diode array Perten DA7200 NIR Analyzer (950-1650 nm) and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The calibration was based on partial least squares regression with cross-validation. The performance of the final model was evaluated according to root mean square error of cross-validation. The results indicate that the main carotenoid components were accurately predicted. The correlation between the NIR measurement and the β-carotene content of tomatoes was adequately high [R2CV = 0.89; root mean square error of cross-validation = 0.174 μg g−1]. The NIR method was also performed for the determination of the all-trans lycopene content (R2CV = 0.75; root mean square error of cross-validation = 6.88 μg g−1). It can be concluded that the diode array NIR spectrometer has the potential to be used for the determination of the main carotenoids of tomatoes.

Open access

Péter Szuvandzsiev, Lajos Helyes, Andrea Lugasi, Csongor Szántó, Piotr Baranowski and Zoltán Pék

Abstract

Processing tomato production represents an important part of the total production of processed vegetables in the world. The quality characteristics of processing tomato, important for the food industry, are soluble solids content and antioxidant content (such as lycopene and polyphenols) of the fruit. Analytical quantification of these components is destructive, time and labour consuming. That is why researchers try to develop a non-destructive and rapid method to assess those quality parameters. The present study reports the suitability of a portable handheld visible near infrared spectrometer to predict soluble solids, lycopene and polyphenol content of tomato fruit puree. Spectral ranges of 500-1000 nm were directly acquired on fruit puree of five different tomato varieties using a FieldSpec HandHeld 2™ Portable Spectroradiometer. Immediately after spectral measurement, each fruit sample was analysed to determine soluble solids, lycopene and polyphenol content. Partial least square regressions were carried out to create models of prediction between spectral data and the values obtained from the analytical results. The accuracy of the predictions was analysed according to the coefficient of determination value (R2), the root mean square error of calibration/ cross-validation.

Open access

Piotr Paluszkiewicz, Ewa Mayzner-Zawadzka, Włodzimierz Baranowski, Grzegorz Bręborowicz, Maciej Brzeziński, Grażyna Durek, Adam Dziki, Maria Czupryńska, Małgorzata Lipińska-Gediga, Magdalena Łętowska, Andrzej Mital, Elżbieta Nowacka, Magdalena Pychyńska-Pokorska, Jerzy Ratajczak, Jan Rogowski, Zbigniew Rybicki, Sławomir Sobieszczyk, Radzisław Trzciński, Marta Wawrzynowicz-Syczewska, Jerzy Windyga and Maria Wujtewicz

Recommendations for the Management of Trauma or Surgery-Related Massive Blood Loss

Exsanguination is an underestimated cause of treatment failures in patients with severe trauma or undergoing surgery. In some patients the primary dysfunction of blood clot formation is a direct cause of a massive blood loss. Patients without previous coagulation disorders are at risk of coagulopathy following intraoperative or post-traumatic bleeding, where the local haemostasis does not warrant bleeding cessation.

The aim of the study was to assess the therapeutic value of various components of a complex interdisciplinary approach, based on the opinion of the experts treating patients with massive bleeding.

Material and methods. The study was conducted by anonymous questionnaire, using the analogue representation of the argument strength. The results were analyzed based on the techniques of descriptive statistics. The argument was considered a key parameter, when the median value of strength was located in the highest quartile.

Results. It was found that the arguments of the highest strength for the risk of developing the posthaemorrhagic coagulation disorders are: loss of more than one third of blood volume, fluid therapy in an amount greater than 35 ml / kg, administration of more than 5 units of packed red blood cells, insufficient supply of fresh frozen plasma and platelets in proportion to packed red blood cells, severe acidosis and hypothermia. The most important tests for post-haemorrhage coagulopathy are: anatomically non-localized bleed, abnormal values of the standard coagulation parameters and fibrinogen level below 1 g / L. In the treatment of post-haemorrhagic coagulopathy the team of experts pointed out the benefits of antifibrinolytic drugs, concentrates of prothrombin complex and recombinant activated coagulation factor VII.

Conclusions. Multidisciplinary therapeutic management of bleeding patients is associated with employment of appropriate treatment methods to achieve the best possible outcome. Factors influencing the development of coagulopathy, the methods of diagnosis and proposed techniques of treatment may facilitate therapeutic decisions in bleeding patients requiring massive transfusion of blood components.