Data on the incidence and burden of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Asia is limited.
To evaluate the incidence and burden of CDI in Thailand.
We used 2010 Nationwide Hospital Admission Data, which included the diagnosis of digestive disorders from various causes coded using the ICD-10. Patients with a diagnosis of Clostridium difficile (ICD10-A07) aged >18 years, were included. Their baseline characteristics, clinical outcomes, and risk factors for CDI were analyzed. Length of hospital stay (LOS), mortality rate, and hospital expenses were used as indicators to evaluate the burden of CDI in Thailand.
Of 4,863,935 admissions in 2010, 554 patients in 570 admissions (0.01%) were diagnosed with CDI. Of these, 106 (19.1%) died during the index hospitalization, and 98.1% had at least one comorbidity. The mean LOS for patients with CDI was longer than with other colitis (P < 0.001) and was also significantly longer for those who died during the index admission, compared with those who survived during the index admission (P = 0.04). The hospital expense for those who died was significantly higher than for those who survived (P < 0.001). From a multivariate analysis, age ≥85 years old, comorbidity, and sepsis were risk factors for mortality during admission with adjusted odds ratios of 2.40, 7.4, and 5.14, respectively.
The calculated burden of CDI in Thais is high; although the incidence of CDI is lower in Thailand than in Western countries. The mortality relates to the elderly age-group and comorbidity, especially sepsis.
Nonthikorn Theerasuwipakorn, Abbas Ali Tasneem, Pradermchai Kongkam, Phontep Angsuwatcharakon, Wiriyaporn Ridtitid, Patpong Navicharern, Krit Kitisin, Peerapol Wangrattanapranee, Rungsun Rerknimitr and Pinit Kullavanijaya
Background and Objectives
Drainage of symptomatic walled-off peripancreatic fluid collections (WPFCs) can be achieved by endoscopic, percutaneous, and surgical techniques. The aim of this study was to determine the current trends in management of WPFCs and the outcome of such modalities in Asian population.
In this retrospective analysis, all patients diagnosed with pancreatitis from 2013 to 2016 in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, were analyzed. Relevant clinical data of all patients with peripancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) was reviewed. Clinical success was defined as improvement in symptoms after drainage.
Of the total 636 patients with pancreatitis, 72 (11.3%) had WPFCs, of which 55 (8.6%) and 17 (2.7%) had pancreatic pseudocyst (PP) and walled-off necrosis (WON), respectively. The commonest etiologies of WPFCs were alcohol (38.9%) and biliary stone (29.2%). Post-procedure and pancreatic tumor related pancreatitis was found in 8.3% and 6.9% patients, respectively. PP was more common in chronic (27.8%) than acute (5.5%) pancreatitis. Of the 72 patients with WPFCs, 31 (43.1%) had local complications. Supportive, endoscopic, percutaneous, and surgical drainage were employed in 58.3%, 27.8%, 8.3%, and 5.6% with success rates being 100%, 100%, 50%, and 100%, respectively. Complications that developed after percutaneous drainage included bleeding at procedure site (n = 1), infection of PFC (n = 1), and pancreatic duct leakage (n = 1).
Over the past few years, endoscopic drainage has become the most common route of drainage of WPFCs followed by percutaneous and surgical routes. The success rate of endoscopic route is better than percutaneous and comparable to surgical modality.