Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 2 of 2 items for

  • Author: Pim Ouwehand x
Clear All Modify Search
Open access

Pim Ouwehand and Barry Schouten

Abstract

Short-term statistics (STS) are important early indicators of economic activity. The statistics are obligatory for all EU countries and also serve as input to national accounts. In most countries, short-term Statistics are based on business surveys. However, in recent years a number of countries have gradually replaced their business surveys with business VAT registry data. An important question is whether these surveys and registries are representative of the populations and whether representativity is stable in time. We apply R-indicators and partial R-indicators to measure the representativity of both kinds of data sources. We find large differences between different months of the year and between the two data sources. We discuss dual frame approaches that optimize the accuracy of STS statistics.

Open access

Reinier Bikker, Jan van den Brakel, Sabine Krieg, Pim Ouwehand and Ronald van der Stegen

Abstract

Seasonally adjusted series of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and its breakdown in underlying categories or domains are generally not consistent with each other. Statistical differences between the total GDP and the sum of the underlying domains arise for two reasons. If series are expressed in constant prices, differences arise due to the process of chain linking. These differences increase if, in addition, a univariate seasonal adjustment, with for instance X-13ARIMA-SEATS, is applied to each series separately. In this article, we propose to model the series for total GDP and its breakdown in underlying domains in a multivariate structural time series model, with the restriction that the sum over the different time series components for the domains are equal to the corresponding values for the total GDP. In the proposed procedure, this approach is applied as a pretreatment to remove outliers, level shifts, seasonal breaks and calendar effects, while obeying the aforementioned consistency restrictions. Subsequently, X-13ARIMA-SEATS is used for seasonal adjustment. This reduces inconsistencies remarkably. Remaining inconsistencies due to seasonal adjustment are removed with a benchmarking procedure.