Background: Anesthesia for cesarean delivery in parturients diagnosed with placenta previa remains controversial.
Objectives: To investigate factors correlated with choice of anesthesia in these parturients and their outcomes.
Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients with placenta previa and cesarean delivery at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Peri operative anesthetic and complication data were collected using a structured collection form. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used. P < 0.05 was considered significant.
Results: Among 50,237 deliveries from July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2011, there were 562 cesarean sections in diagnosed cases of placenta previa. Cesarean deliveries (479) were performed under spinal anesthesia (81%), epidural anesthesia (1.8%), and if the effects spinal anesthesia dissipated, general anesthesia (2.3%). Among 46 cases of cesarean hysterectomy, 27 patients (58.7%) received regional anesthesia. However, 6 of 10 patients with planned cesarean hysterectomy underwent general anesthesia, while 1 of 4 of a group with regional anesthesia needed conversion to general anesthesia. There was no serious anesthesia-related complication. Factors related to general anesthesia were: a higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status OR 2.7 (95% CI 1.7-4.3) P < 0.001; presentation with bleeding OR 1.8(95% CI 1.0-3.1) P = 0.033; anterior site of placenta OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1-3.2) P = 0.025; heart rate >125 bpm OR 5.6 (95% CI 1.5-214) P = 0.01; and pack red cell transfusion OR 3.4 (95% CI 2.0-5.7) P < 0.001.
Conclusions: Most parturients received regional anesthesia. Neuroaxial anesthesia and general anesthesia are safe.