Michal Vagner, Jan Malecek, Luboš Tomšovský, Petr Kubový, Andrea Levitova and Petr Stastny
Achieving the maximum possible impact force of the front kick can be related to the isokinetic lower limb muscle strength. Therefore, we aimed to determine the regression model between kicking performance and the isokinetic peak net moment of hip rotators, flexors, and hip extensors and flexors at various speeds of contraction. Twenty-five male soldiers (27.7 ± 7.2 yrs, 83.8 ± 6.1 kg, 180.5 ± 6.5 cm) performed six barefoot front kicks, where impact forces (N) and kick velocity (m∙s-1) were measured. The 3D kinematics and isokinetic dynamometry were used to estimate the kick velocity, isokinetic moment of kicking lower limb hip flexors and extensors (60, 120, 240, 300°∙s-1), and stance lower limb hip internal and external rotators (30, 90°∙s-1). Multiple regression showed that a separate component of the peak moment concentric hip flexion and extension of the kicking lower limb at 90°∙s-1 can explain 54% of the peak kicking impact force variance (R2 = 0.54; p < 0.001). When adding the other 3 components of eccentric and concentric hip internal and external rotations at 30°∙s-1, the internal and external hip rotation ratios at 30°∙s-1 on the stance limb and the concentric ratio of kicking limb flexion and extension at 300°∙s-1 that explained the variance of impact force were 75% (p = 0.003). The explosive strength of kicking limb hip flexors and extensors is the main condition constraint for kicking performance. The maximum strength of stance limb internal and external rotators and speed strength of kicking limb hip flexors and extensors are important constraints of kicking performance that should be considered to improve the front kick efficiency.
Petr Stastny, Adam Maszczyk, Kristina Tománková, Petr Kubový, Michaela Richtrová, Jakub Otáhal, Rostislav Čichoň, Aleksandra Mostowik, Piotr Żmijewski and Paweł Cięszczyk
Amputee golfers need to cope with the absence of sole proprioception, a decreased range of swing motion and other factors which should be recognized for training purposes. The aim of this study was to determine the kinetic and kinematic differences in the golf swing in one leg and two legs amputees. The participants consisted of two males and one female at a professional or amateur level with a different degree of disability. Each participant was taped by 3D markers and performed five golf swings with the iron 6. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) did not vary between individuals in kinematics, however, it was low in kinetic variables of two leg amputees. The Kendal rank correlation showed a significant relationship between the level of amputation and a large number of kinetic and kinematic variables such as X factor, O factor, S factor and individual body angles. The fluency and similarity of the golf swing did not depend on the level of amputation. One lower limb amputation did not seem to increase movement variability contrary to two lower limb amputation. The most variable parameter was a weight-shift in all golfers. The takeaway and horizontal force angle depended on the level of amputation rather than individual technique, thus, their modification by training may be difficult. Estimation of golf swing „mistakes“ in amputees in respect to the leading arm in an early follow or late follow position appeared to be useless.