Through this paper, the author would like to raise a discussion on possible specific effects of current demographic trends (namely the demographic ageing) in low-performace regions of Central and Eastern Europe. The article focuses on the current tendencies of the demographic development of the Ústí nad Labem Region (N Czechia), an old industrial region undergoing the economic transition since 1990s. The demographic development in the Ústí nad Labem Region is put in the context of the demographic development of the world, Europe, and the Czech Republic. Population development in the Ústí nad Labem Region copies the tendencies at the level of the territorial units of higher level. The differences in values of the demographic indicators, especially when compared to the Czech Republic, are mainly caused by specific demographic, economic, and social structures of the inhabitants of the region. The most important and discussed tendency of the population development in last decades is the process of the demographic ageing. The change will be slow but growing stronger with the ageing process becoming more powerful. It would be necessary to prepare for the process, particularly in the economic and social field, at the level of the regional government, otherwise the demographic ageing may further restrict the speed of economic and social transition in the region.