Peter-Damian Chukwunomso Jiwuba, Lydia Chidimma Jiwuba and Moses Udoha Onyekwere
The growth performance, haematological and serum biochemical characteristics of thirty-six West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep of about 10 - 12 months of age and averaged 8.53kg in weight were sourced from the College flock. Four dietary treatments designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 were formulated to contain 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% oil palm leaf meal (OPLM) respectively were randomly assigned to the animals. The experimental animals were divided into four groups of nine animals each, with each group replicated thrice with three animals per replicate. Each group was allotted to one of the diets in a completely randomized design. The animals were weighed at the beginning of the trial and weekly subsequently and data for growth performance were generated. Blood samples were obtained from one animal in each replicate, and data generated were analyzed statistically. Average daily feed intake, total dry matter intake and average daily weight gain were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the dietary treatment, with animals on T4 group having higher and better values. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) also differed significantly (P<0.05) with sheep on T3 and T4 (11.82 and 11.49 respectively) having the best FCR. The haematology showed that the packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC), and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCV) were significantly (P < 0.05) improved at 10%, 20% and 30% inclusion levels of OPLM, respectively. Sheep in treatment groups had improved (P < 0.05) white blood cell (WBC) count than those on the control group. Serum biochemistry results showed that total protein, albumin and globulin were significantly influenced (P < 0.05) and tended to increase with increasing levels of test ingredient. Sheep in treatment groups had higher (P < 0.05) urea values than those on control. Creatinine values at 20% and 30% inclusion differed significantly (P < 0.05) with the control value. Cholesterol was significantly influenced (P < 0.05) and followed an irregular trend across the treatment groups. The results showed that inclusion of OPLM had a beneficial effect on the general performance of the WAD sheep. Therefore, 30% OPLM supplementation was recommended for optimum performance in WAD sheep.
Peter-Damian Chukwunomso Jiwuba, Francis Okechukwu Ahamefule, Okechukwu Samuel Okechukwu and Kingsley Ikwunze
A 90-day study was carried out with 36 West African Dwarf goats to determine the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on feed intake, body weight changes and haematology of WAD does. Four diets were formulated such that diets T1, T2, T3 and T4 contained MOLM at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15%, respectively. The diets were offered to the goats, which were randomly divided into four groups of nine goats each in a completely randomized design. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily weight gain (ADWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and heamatology of the animals were determined and statistically analyzed. Results showed that ADFI, ADWG differed significantly (P<0.05) with T4 goats having better values. FCR was however best for does fed T4 diet. PCV, RBC, MCV and WBC differed (P<0.05) significantly among the treatments. Packed cell volume (29.50-32.75%) was improved (p<0.05) by MOLM supplementation at 15% inclusion level. White blood cell counts for goats in treatment groups were significantly (p<0.05) higher and better than the control. Incorporation of 15% MOLM in diets of WAD does enhanced their performance and heamatological profile. Moringa oleifera leaf meal supplementation level at 15% was recommended for optimum West African Dwarf goat production.
The responses of 96 day old broilers fed Chromolaena odorata leaf meal (COLM) on blood profile and gut microbial load were studied for 49 days. The birds were randomly assigned to four treatment groups and replicated three times in a completely randomized design. The birds were fed four experimental diets formulated at 0%, 2%, 4% and 6% for the starter phase and 0%, 4%, 8% and 12% of COLM at the finisher phase for T1, T2, T3 and T4 respectively. All the haematological parameters were similar (P>0.05) across the treatment groups except MCH and WBC which were significantly (P< 0.05) higher and better in the treatment groups than the control group. The results on serum chemistry showed significant (P<0.05) difference for total protein, albumin, creatinine and cholesterol across the treatment groups. Cholesterol was significantly (P<0.05) reduced with increasing levels of COLM. Results showed that coliforms and E.coli were consistently higher (P<0.05) among the T1 birds than those fed T2, T3 and T4. It was concluded that, COLM enhanced adequate haematocrit and immune status, hypoglycaemic ability, suppresses the growth of gut pathogenic microorganisms and enhanced the growth of beneficial microorganism in broilers.