The European Union gives universities an important place to participate in research and development in the country. The basic research and teaching process of higher education institutions is gradually becoming more and more scientific, and the importance of science and research is growing. Th e growing importance of R&D for universities also increases the importance of public support in this area. Slovakia was eligible for support from the structural funds by joining the EU. In the period 2007 - 2013, universities have had the highest increase in science and research spending due to the use of these resources. However, it is a question of the extent to which this form of public support has contributed to the field of research and development of higher education institutions and whether there has been a real increase in their research and development activities. We examine the effectiveness of the support granted to public universities from the European Union Structural Funds on the basis of measurable indicators of granted projects and the impact of outputs on their scientific research potential in the regions of Slovakia. The results of the analysis highlighted the high level of public support for university infrastructure projects at the expense of support with a focus on intellectual property creation and patents. The discussion is focused on whether the funds allocated in this way were effective in relation to the objectives of the Operational Program Research and Development 2007 - 2013 and thus contributed to an increase of scientific and research potential at higher education institutions in the regions in Slovakia.
Although it is well-known that public-funded research has contributed to economic development, even these days it is not clear how to support this research effectively. Tailoring the proper support system still remains a challenge for the government. Th is is also the case for research support for universities, which are one of the main “engines” of public-funded research. One possible answer is performance-based funding. Th is funding has recently come to be increasingly used by many countries. However, performance-based funding may have several inconveniences. Th is article will analyze the performance-based funding that has already been introduced in the Slovak Republic. Our research outcomes prove the fact that this system has resulted in an increase in publication performance, but at the same time in a higher orientation on quantity instead of quality with several new negative effects.
Background: Transfer of knowledge from academia to business is one of the crucial issues for creating innovation. Creation of university spin-offs could significantly improve this transfer. Objectives: The main scientific aim is to examine the differences between universities in European countries and identify factors affecting the probability of creating the university spin-off. The paper is also focused on the differences in the specialization and financial sources of universities. Methods/Approach: We compare selected indicators for higher education institutions in European countries and examine potential determinants affecting the probability of academic spin-off formation. With respect to the main aim, the logit and probit regression analyses have been used. Results: Our results show that the creation of spin-offs is typical on the one hand for highly specialized universities or on the other hand for universities with a wide variety of study programs. They should also have an optimum number of doctoral students and have mostly less funding from tuition fees. Conclusions: Several indicators appear to play an important role in the formation of university spin-off. These indicators are the level of specialization, the share of tuition fees in the University budget, and the share of Ph.D. and foreign students.
Research and development activities within the region are often seen as a key driving force of innovation performance. This is further important for productivity growth and economic growth of the region. These issues are part of European Union strategy for regional development called Smart Specialization. Higher education institutions play important role in the support of innovation in the region via their own research activities, knowledge creation and dissemination and improvement of the human capital in the region. The main aim of our research is to test potential link between intensity of research & development as well as specialization of the region and labour productivity in the region. In our research we compared NUTS 2 regions in the Czech Republic and Slovakia based on the selected indicators related to research and development. We used factor analysis and regression analysis based on the cross-sectional data for all NUTS 2 regions in the EU. Our results strongly suggest that focus on research & development activities is positively correlated with higher labour productivity in the region. Higher number of scientific publications and patents is also positively linked to higher productivity in the region. The same seems to be true for higher share of tertiary educated inhabitants.
Vladimir Hiadlovsky, Jan Hunady, Marta Orviska and Peter Pisar
Background: The intensity of innovation could often be crucial for further economic development of the regions. Science and technology are often seen as the key factor supporting innovation in the regions. Furthermore, we can assume that higher intensity of research activities could lead to better economic performance.
Objectives: Research aims to examine the link between the economic performance of the region and the intensity of science and technology activities, proxied by the share of employees in science and technology.
Methods/Approach: The analysis is based on panel data for NUTS2 regions of the European Union (EU) member states. We conducted correlation analysis, panel Granger causality tests and regression analysis.
Results: Our results suggest the existence of a significant positive correlation between GDP per capita and the share of employees in science and technology. Moreover, the regions with a higher intensity of science and technology activities are mostly characterized by relatively low unemployment rates.
Conclusions: Research activities are positive correlated with regional GDP and negatively correlated with unemployment. However, increasing the share of employment in science and technology beyond a certain turning point would not lead to any further positive effects on regional economic performance.