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Michaela Kalivodová, Róbert Kanka, Peter Miklós, Veronika Hulejová Sládkovičová and Dávid Žiak

Abstract

Intensification of agriculture has led, among other negative consequences, also to drying out of wetlands. Nevertheless, some of the wetland biotopes were preserved as small spots. This paper discusses the importance of those areas serving as refugia for small terrestrial mammals. Because small terrestrial mammals in the middle of food webs, they serve as an indicator for the presence of food sources (plants and invertebrates) and suggest the potential of the area as a living space for predators. The experiment took place at lowland agricultural landscape with wetland patches in west and west-east Slovakia (Záhorská and Podunajská nížina lowlands) using catch-mark-release method from 2015 to 2017. The importance was assessed according to abundance, biodiversity, persistence of species during seasons and habitat preference of small terrestrial mammals and equitability of the biotopes. Overall 368 individuals belonging to 12 species were recorded. The lowest abundance and diversity were registered at field biotopes where Apodemus sylvaticus was the most abundant. Microtus arvalis, Clethrionomys glareolus and Sorex araneus dominate at wetland biotopes. The higher biodiversity and abundance of small mammals were recorded at the wetland refugia. The results, together with position of small mammals in food webs, lead to conclusion that the wetland refugia are important habitats for the overall preservation of biodiversity and maintaining them is a part of the strategy for sustainable agriculture.

Open access

Domokos Bíró, László Jakab-Farkas, András Kelemen, Sándor Papp, Mohamed Fathy Hasaneen, Miklós Menyhárd, Sándor Gurbán and Péter B. Barna

Abstract

In the present work the influence of the level of oxygen doping on the structure of TiN films was investigated by dedicated experiments. The films were deposited at 400°C in an all metal UHV device by unbalanced magnetron sputtering at the same Ar and nitrogen flow rates, but the oxygen flow rate was changed in the experiments, incorporating oxygen in the range of 4 and 20 at.%. The structure of the films was investigated by XRD, Auger electron (AES) and X-ray photon electron (XPS) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results discovered the crystal face anisotropy in the incorporation-segregation of oxygen leading to the change of the <111> texture to <002>. The structure analysis revealed that the <002> texture is developing also by competitive growth of crystals, which is the result of the limitation of the growth of the <111> oriented crystals by the TiO2 layer developing on their growth surface by the segregated oxygen species. The oxygen incorporating in the crystal lattice on the 002 crystal faces of the <002> oriented crystals is segregated by surface spinodal decomposition, developing nm sized 3D TiO-2 inclusion both in the bulk of the columns and the column boundaries.