The substituent effect on the geometry and strain enthalpy of [2,2]paracyclophane is theoretically investigated by density functional theory. Gas-phase calculations were performed for twenty distinct electron donating and electron withdrawing substituents. The largest out-of-plane distortion of phenyl rings is exhibited by —SCN and —CF3 groups. On the other hand, —OH, —CH3 and —F groups show the minimal deformation. The strain enthalpy for unsubstituted [2,2]paracyclophane associated with repulsive forces between phenyl units reached up to 118.5 kJ mol−1. Any substitution causes increase of the strain enthalpy value proportionally to the absolute values of Hammett para-substituent constants. Two separate linear dependences with similar slopes were obtained for monosubstituted as well as double symmetrically substituted derivatives.
The DFT study of primary antioxidant action of gallic acid and its carboxylic anion is presented in the gas-phase, benzene and water. Corresponding reaction enthalpies for three possible mechanisms was calculated using B3LYP/6-311++G** method. Bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) and proton dissociation enthalpy (PDE) of 4-OH group was found to be the lowest in gas-phase as well as in both solvents approximated by IEF-PCM model. Ionization potentials (IPs) were higher than BDEs in all cases. Deprotonation of carboxylic group result in increased antioxidant potency as drop in BDE, proton affinities (PAs) and IPs was indicated in all environments.
In this article, the study of 67 compounds representing various para-, meta- and ortho- substituted formanilides is presented. These molecules and the products of their acidic and alkaline hydrolysis were studied using DFT quantum chemical methods in order to calculate the reaction enthalpies. These enthalpies are correlated with the hydrolysis rate constants, kH, published for the acid-catalysed acyl cleavage bimolecular (AAC2) mechanism and the modified base-catalysed acyl cleavage bimolecular (BAC2) mechanism. The found linear dependences can be used for the prediction of rate constants of non-synthesised formanilide derivatives.
A systematic theoretical study using density functional theory is presented to estimate the structural, electronic, and charge-transfer characteristics of a symmetric fluorination of acenequinones outer rings. The change in aromaticity of model derivatives was described by different types of aromaticity indices. By considering a hopping mechanism and using the Marcus theory in combination with the Einstein-Smoluchowski relation, electronic drift mobilities were predicted for selected dimer configurations obtained from X-ray structures of anthraquinone, 6,13-pentacenequinone and its octafluorinated derivatives. The analysis of obtained data showed that the fluorination of the outer rings of acenequinones can lower the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital to the range from −3.0 to −4.0 eV, i.e. typical for organic n-type semiconducting materials. Finally, potential electric semiconductivity of available X-ray structures relating to drift mobilities was discussed.
A chemical microsolvation model for solution phase bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) evaluation by means of molecular dynamics is presented. In this simple model, the primary solvent effect on the BDE values was estimated by placing of five water molecules nearby the studied functional groups evenly. Furthermore, the secondary solvent effect was reflected using the conductor like screening model (COSMO). From the quantum-chemical point of view, the molecular dynamics simulations based on the B3LYP functional in rather small basis set were performed. Despite of the constitutional limitations of the proposed model, the obtained O-H and N-H BDE values in phenol (363 kJ mol-1) and aniline (369 kJ mol-1) are in good agreement with the experimental solution phase data.
The first step of SPLET mechanism in solution phase for 15 benzoic acid derivatives was studied from the thermodynamic point of view. For this purpose, proton affinities (PAs) of corresponding carboxylate or phenoxide anions were computed by means of DFT method employing B3LYP and M062X functionals with 6-311++G** basis set and SMD or IEF-PCM solvent model. The substituent effect on PAs was analyzed in terms of Hammett constants, σp. Found dependences exhibit satisfactory linearity and enable quick estimation of solution phase PAs from the Hammett constants.
Due to the implementation of environmental regulations and the continual tightening up of the limits for pollutants in combustion systems, we are being forced to pay more attention to this area. A significant source of pollutants originating from the industry is, in particular, the formation of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in combustion systems with air intake. The control of pollutant emissions has become a global concern due to the worldwide increase in the use of fossil fuels. Besides the fact that the insufficient combustion process has a significant share of emissions in the environment, it also reduces the overall efficiency and economy of the operation using this energy source. We encounter this problem also in the operation of gas melting furnaces. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to describe the results of experimental measurements of the amount of emissions produced during the gas melting furnace KOV 010/1998 operation, which is in practice predominantly used for the melting of Aluminium alloys. Experimental measurements were performed to design the most appropriate operating mode variant of the melting furnace with regard to maximizing its productivity and at the same time to minimizing the total amount of emissions produced during one melting cycle.
Article deals with point to using intelligent relay and PLC systems in practice, to their architecture and principles of programming and simulations for education process on all types of school from secondary to universities. Aim of the article is proposal of simple examples of applications, where is demonstrated methodology of programming on real simple practice examples and shown using of chosen instructions. In practical part is described process of creating schemas and describing of function blocks, where are described methodologies of creating program and simulations of output reactions on changeable inputs for intelligent relays.