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Miloš Gregor and Peter Malík

Construction of Master Recession Curve Using Genetic Algorithms

The article describes a new methodology of using genetic algorithms to assemble a natural time series of discharge recession, from which a master recession curve can be interpreted both for streams and for springs. Presented approach can avoid obstacles such as limited time-series datasets, incomplete recessions or too many recessionary segments in many recession series, different time intervals of observations (daily or weekly frequencies). Short time-series intervals, imprecise or mistaken measurements and different types of datasets (averaged or directly measured data) are taken into account as well. Even rough measurements of discharges with inaccurate sensing range can be analysed, if sufficiently long observation is available. Complicated hydrograph shapes in the case of e.g. karstic springs (often caused by combination of laminar and turbulent discharge sub-regimes due to karst network settings) can be processed as well. Subsequent construction of master recession curve is much easier an offers better conditions for its interpretation. Presented algorithm was already implemented to a programme solution, completed on the user form.

Open access

Radoslav Bujnovský, Peter Malík and Jaromír Švasta

Abstract

The risk of diffuse pollution of groundwater by nitrogen substances from agricultural land is perceived as a result of the interaction of groundwater vulnerability (determined by the characteristics of the environment overlying groundwater in relation to water transport or soil solution) and loading of overlying environment by nitrogen. Index of groundwater vulnerability was assessed on the basis of four parameters, namely, the amount of effective rainfall in the period from October to March, the capacity of soil to accumulate water, the average depth of the groundwater table and the permeability of the rock environment. Assessment of the index of loading of overlying environment by nitrogen was based on two parameters, namely, nitrogen balance and crop cover on agricultural land in the winter half on districts level in 2012, which corresponds with current state of the load. The resulting risk of groundwater pollution by nitrogen was expressed by the formula counting with the transformed values of groundwater vulnerability index and the index of loading of overlying environment by nitrogen. From practical point of view, the above mentioned indexes, as well as the subsequent risk of diffuse groundwater pollution, were spatially expressed via three associated categories. Based on the evaluation of relevant parameters, 5.18% of agricultural land falls into the category of very high and high risk, 42.20% in the medium risk category and 52.62% in the category of low and very low risk of diffuse pollution of groundwater by nitrogen from agricultural land.

Open access

Muhammad Umar, Peter Betts, Malik Muhammad Saud Khan, Muhammad Amjad Sabir, Muhammad Farooq, Asif Zeb, Umair Khan Jadoon and Shoaib Ali

Abstract

Stratigraphical and sedimentological analyses of Late Neoproterozoic successions in Lesser Himalaya are combined herein with palaeogeographical considerations and comparisons with equivalent successions in India and South China. The succession starts with the Hazara Formation, which contains complete and incomplete Bouma sequences suggesting its deposition in deep marine turbidite settings. The overlying Tanawal Formation, rich in massive sandstone, shale and siltstone, was deposited in shallow marine conditions, as indicated by the presence of parallel lamination, large scale tabular, trough cross- and hummocky cross-stratifications. The Tanawal Formation facies shift laterally from proximal (south-southeast) to distal (north-northwest). The glaciogenic Tanaki Boulder Bed, overlying the Tanawal Formation, was deposited during the Maronian glaciation. It is equivalent to the Blaini Formation of India, and to the Sinian diamictites of South China. The Abbottabad Formation of Cambrian age overlies the Tanaki Boulder Bed, and is composed of dolomite, chert nodules and phosphate-rich packages; similar successions are documented in India and South China at the same stratigraphical interval. The similarities of the Neoproterozoic successions of Lesser Himalaya (both in Pakistan and India) and South China suggests their possible proximity during the break-up of Rodinia and the assembly of the Gondwana Supercontinent.