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  • Author: Peter Kováčik x
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Abstract

The effort to achieve higher yields at the required qualitative level has led to the intensive studying the problems of the rational usage of the titanium containing fertilisers by the agricultural research in the course the previous thirty years. Therefore, the objective of the experiment was to evaluate the impact of two doses of Mg-Titanit (0.2 l/ha and 0.4 l/ha) on the formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass, also on the total chlorophyll in leaves, on the titanium and nitrogen content in the seeds and straw, on the quantity and quality of winter rape yield. The doses were applied two or three times on the leaves of winter rape (BBCH 50-52, BBCH 59, BBCH 66-67). The experiment was realized on the Haplic Chernozem (48°42´ N, 17°70´ E - Western Slovakia) during two farming years (2009/2010 and 2010/2011). The results showed that all three applications of Mg-Titanit in both doses stimulated the formation of aboveground and underground phytomass of winter rape. The highest growth of phytomass was detected after the second application. The application of Mg-Titanit in the growth phases BBCH 50-52 and BBCH 59 increased the contents of both chlorophylls (a and b), where the growth of chlorophyll b content was more considerable than the growth of chlorophyll a content. The third spraying by Mg-Titanit decreased the content of the total chlorophyll. The application of Mg-Titanit had the positive impact on the yield of seeds, straw and fat content in the winter oilseed rape seeds.

Abstract

Sequestration of organic carbon in soils is an effective strategy to mitigate global climate change. Carbon sequestration leads to an increase in carbon stocks in soil, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions while improving soil quality and crop production. There are several published articles containing information in which the authors explain carbon sequestration in different soil types under different climatic conditions or farming systems, but on the other hand there is less information about carbon sequestration in water-stable aggregates. In field experiment, the manner in which different soil management practices influence carbon sequestration and its dynamics in water-stable aggregates was studied. We evaluated the soil samples taken from Haplic Luvisol (Dolná Malanta - Slovakia) from all treatments of tillage (conventional, minimal and grassland) and fertilisation (without fertilisation, crop residues together with NPK fertilisers and only NPK fertilisers). The maintenance of carbon concentration within soil under conventional tillage and in native grassland was due to an enhanced incorporation of new organic matter from the coarse fraction of particulate organic matter to macro-aggregates and in treatment with ploughed crop residue together with NPK fertilisers, there was besides of this caused by the reduction of carbon mineralisation from the fine fraction. Soil management practices have a significant effect on the re-distribution of soil organic matter in water-stable aggregates. In conventional and minimal tillage, very important sources of carbon sequestration are agronomical favourable size fractions of water-stable macro-aggregates and in native grassland, as well as in all fertiliser treatments, the most important source of carbon sequestration is water-stable micro-aggregates.

Abstract

The existence of a small number of publications dealing with the impact of solid sodium humate and lignite on the quantity and quality of grown crops was the reason for establishing the field experiment. The objective of this experiment was to detect the impact of solid lignite and solid sodium humate on the quantity and quality of spring barley yield. These substances were applied into the soil either independently or along with nitrogen fertiliser. The next objective was to determine the impact of foliar application of sodium humate water solution applied either independently or along with nitrogen fertiliser on the quality and quantity of spring barley yield. The achieved results showed that the autumn application of solid lignite and the presowing application of solid sodium humate into the soil tended to decrease the yield of both grain and straw of spring barley, crude protein content in grain, proportion of the first-class grains and volume weight of grain, whereas the impact of humate was more negative. Lignite and sodium humate in the solid form should be used along with nitrogen fertiliser. The application of sodium humate in liquid form during the growth season of barley tended to increase the yield of both grain and straw. The joint application of nitrogen and liquid sodium humate during the growth season of barley increased the grain yield of barley significantly. A lower dose of nitrogen, applied during the growth season of barley (growth season BBCH 23), increased the grain yield of barley considerably more than a higher N dose, applied into the soil before barley sowing.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of different concentrations (500-7500 μg/mL) of gentamicin - GENT (aminoglycoside antibiotic) on the selected mammalian cell line (Vero - cell line from African green monkey kidney). Analysis of the cell morphological changes was microscopically evaluated (magnification × 400). Quantification of Ca, Mg and total proteins was performed using spectrophotometry on device Rx Monza (Randox). Quantification of Na, K and Cl was performed on the automatic analyzer EasyLyte. The cell viability was assessed using the metabolic mitochondrial MTT test. Vero cells were able to survive at concentrations of 500 (89.21 %), 1000 (79.54 %) and 2000 μg/mL (34.59 %). We observed statistically significant decrease of vital cell content at concentrations of 2000, 4500, 7500 μg/mL against control group. Vero cell line slightly reacted to the presence of GENT but total proteins and mineral parameters were not significantly affected. Vero cells were highly sensitive to GENT with a significant decrease of viability at concentrations of 2000 and 4500 μg/mL (P < 0.001). Our data reveal that GENT has a significant cytotoxic and adverse effect on the cell viability.

Abstract

A pot experiment on potato was carried out to verify the nematicidal effect of four composts of different origin (C1: 70 % horse manure + 15 % sugar beet pomace + 5 % poultry manure + 10% grape pomace; C2: 100 % pig manure decomposed by juveniles of Musca domestica; C3: 100 % vermicompost from medical plants wastes; C4: 100% vermicompost from cattle manure) on the potato cyst nematodes G. rostochiensis (Ro1) and G. pallida (Pa2 and Pa3). Composts at different rates (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 % w/w) were mixed with the nematode infested soils. Pots with unamended soils were used as control. Pots (4 l) were arranged in a glasshouse according to a randomized block design with four replications per each treatment. A significant reduction in number of cysts, eggs and juveniles/cyst and eggs and juveniles/g soil was observed in each compost in comparison to unamended soil. The suppressive nematode effect increased according to the compost NH4+ content and compost rate.

Abstract

Many of the world’s findings indicate the positive effect of earthworms on soil parameters, and consequently, on the formation of phytomass of cultivated plants. In our experiment we studied: A) the influence of soil itself, soil mixed with vermicompost in a ratio of 9:1; B) the influence of earthworms number (genus Eisenia foetida, 10 and 20 individuals per pot) supplied to soil mixed with vermicompost in the ratio of 9:1 on the dynamics of changes in the weight of radish roots, the total chlorophyll content in leaves and the selected qualitative parameters of the roots. The results obtained showed that one tenth proportion of vermicompost from the total weight of soil substrate caused the statistically significant increase in the total chlorophyll content in leaves, the increase in yield of radish roots, the reduction of the vitamin C content and the increase of nitrate content in the roots. The impact of earthworms on the chlorophyll content in leaves and on the root weight was negative. The addition of 10 individuals of earthworms into 20 kg of substrate (soil + vermicompost) resulted in the increased content of vitamin C and the decreased content of nitrates in the radish roots. Twenty earthworms added to vermicompost, compared to vermicompost alone, did not affect the vitamin C content and reduced the nitrate content.

Abstract

In Slovakia more than a half of the landfill‘s waste consist of the biodegradable waste (BDW). Therefore the BDW composting can decrease significantly the production of the landfill gas as well as the financial and space requirements for landfills. However, the composts production have to be solved comprehensively, including their rational usage. In Slovakia the use of composts is ineffective if the location of their production is farther than 50 km, because of the high tranportation costs. The objective of the experiments was to determine the ratio of vermicompost in the soil growing medium in order not to decrease the yield quantity and quality of radish - the most commonly grown vegetable in the gardens in Slovakia. Five shares of vermicompost were tested in the soil substrate (0%, 10%, 20%, 25% and 50%). The results show that 50% share of vermicompost in the soil substrate, i.e. the ratio of vermicompost to soil 1:1, was not the optimal solution of the vermicompost usage. However, even this quantity of vermicompost did not have a negative impact on the weight of the aboveground and underground phytomass in comparison with the treatment without vermicompost. 50% share of vermicompost in the growing medium had the negative impact on the qualitative parameters of radish. It decreased the content of vitamin C and increased the content of nitrates in radish roots and leaves. Along with the higher share of vermicompost in the growing medium, the content of vitamin C was decreased in radish roots and leaves, and the content of nitrates in radish roots was increased. The roots of the biggest diameter, and consequently the highest yield of radish roots and leaves was formed in the treatment where the soil substrate consisted of four portions of soil and one p ortion of vermicompost (20% proportion of vermicompost).

Abstract

TV watching dramatically changes with introduction of new technologies such as Internet-connected TVs, enriched digital broadcasting (DVB), on-demand content, additional programme information, mobile phones and tablets enabling multiscreen functions etc that offer added values to content consumers. In this paper we propose modular advanced TV platform and its enablers enhancing TV watching. They allow users to receive aside of EPG also additional information about broadcasted content, to be reminded of requested programme, to utilize recommendation and search features, thanks to multiscreen functionality to allow users to take watched content with them or transfer it onto another device. The modularity of the platform allows new features to be added in future.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of split and one-time application of nitrogen-sulphur fertiliser ENSIN (26% N, 13% S) containing nitrification inhibitors (dicyandiamide and 1,2,4-triazole) on the content of nitrate and ammonium nitrogen in soil. The study was conducted in field small-plot experiment with winter barley on Haplic Luvisol with dominance of clay fraction in experimental station of the Central Testing Institute in Agriculture of Veľké Ripňany in the experimental years 2015 to 2017. The dose of nitrogen in all experimental treatments was 140 kg/ha and was applied at once during regenerative fertilisation or split in three partial doses. Soil samples from all examined treatments were taken from two soil depths (0.0‒0.3 m and 0.3‒0.6 m, respectively) by probe rod in three week intervals. Achieved results indicate that in the year 2015/2016, one-time application of fertiliser ENSIN containing nitrification inhibitors considerably reduced portion of N-NO3 - from the content of Nmin by 32 relative % in soil depth of 0.0-0.3 m and by 36 relative % in soil depth of 0.3‒0.6 m. On the other hand, in the year 2016/2017, split application of fertiliser ENSIN substantially reduced portion of N-NO3 - from the content of Nmin by 38‒62 relative % in soil depth of 0.0‒0.3 m, however increased portion of N-NO3 - by 10‒14 relative % in soil depth of 0.3‒0.6 m

Abstract

The oil well drilling and oil processing industries are globally the main contaminants of environmental condition caused by human economic activities. Oil spills have a negative impact on the environment, economy, and society. In this research, the effects of oil with different chemical contents on soil types formed in two soil-climatic conditions have been studied. The purpose of this research is to study the change of soil properties by oil pollution. The experiments have been conducted in irrigated and non-irrigated soils of the desert region of the Kashkadarya and Surkhandarya (Uzbekistan). The results have shown that aggregates (0.25; 0.5; 1; 2; 3; 5; 7; 10 mm) which are the important of soil fertility have changed by oil and oil production, and the changes have proven to be temporary. The effect of the 5% and 15% concentrations of oil, engine oil, petrol, kerosene has been studied. The aggregates 0.25 mm and 0.5 mm have the biggest change among aggregates, in fact, aggregates of 0.25 mm at the level of 5% of oil decreased by 27.02%, at the level of 15% of oil decreased by 99.8%, at the level of 5% of kerosene decreased by 2%, at the level of 15% of oil decreased by 98.1%. Aggregates of 0.5 mm at the level of 5% of oil decreased by 6.44%, at the level of 15% of oil decreased by 67.14%, at the level of 5% of kerosene decreased by 12.75%, at the level of 15% of oil decreased by 92.8%. Engine oil and Petrol at levels 5 and 15 have relatively rare changed. Also, as a result of oil and oil pollution, the total carbon dioxide in the soil has grown briefly, which is an anthropogenic carbon and insignificant for soil fertility and humus. As a result, an anthropogenic carbon increased in gray-brown soil (Durisols Technic, WRB) at 0 – 35 cm layer by 0.22%, irrigated meadow-alluvial soil (Fluvisols, WRB) by 0.31%, irrigated gray-brown soil (Durisols Technic, WRB) by 0.44%, irrigated Takyr-meadow soil (Calsisols, WRB) by 0.25%, Takyr soil (Calsisols, WRB) by 0.32%, sandy Desert soil (Durisols Technic, WRB) by 0.21%.