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Open access

Peter Kováčik, Michaela Havrlentová and Vladimír Šimanský

Abstract

The effort to achieve higher yields at the required qualitative level has led to the intensive studying the problems of the rational usage of the titanium containing fertilisers by the agricultural research in the course the previous thirty years. Therefore, the objective of the experiment was to evaluate the impact of two doses of Mg-Titanit (0.2 l/ha and 0.4 l/ha) on the formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass, also on the total chlorophyll in leaves, on the titanium and nitrogen content in the seeds and straw, on the quantity and quality of winter rape yield. The doses were applied two or three times on the leaves of winter rape (BBCH 50-52, BBCH 59, BBCH 66-67). The experiment was realized on the Haplic Chernozem (48°42´ N, 17°70´ E - Western Slovakia) during two farming years (2009/2010 and 2010/2011). The results showed that all three applications of Mg-Titanit in both doses stimulated the formation of aboveground and underground phytomass of winter rape. The highest growth of phytomass was detected after the second application. The application of Mg-Titanit in the growth phases BBCH 50-52 and BBCH 59 increased the contents of both chlorophylls (a and b), where the growth of chlorophyll b content was more considerable than the growth of chlorophyll a content. The third spraying by Mg-Titanit decreased the content of the total chlorophyll. The application of Mg-Titanit had the positive impact on the yield of seeds, straw and fat content in the winter oilseed rape seeds.

Open access

Marek Renčo and Peter Kováčik

Abstract

The addition of organic material to the soil can be an effective alternative to the environmentally unsafe chemical treatments that are used to control plant parasitic nematodes. We evaluated the effects of vermicompost alone, and aqueous solutions of vermicompost (vermicompost tea) either alone or mixed with urea, on the development and survival of two potato-cyst nematodes: Globodera rostochiensis (pathotype Ro1) and G. pallida (pathotype Pa2) and on the growth parameters of the host potato plants. Soil amendments with these materials significantly decreased the number of cysts · 400 g–1 of both species in the soil, the number of eggs and juveniles · cyst–1 of both species, and the number of eggs and juveniles · g–1 of both species in the soil, relative to the untreated controls. The suppressive effect was significantly higher at the highest dose than the lowest treatment dose, for all tested materials. Globodera rostochiensis was more sensitive to all the tested materials than G. pallida. The aqueous solutions of vermicompost alone or in combination with urea were more effective than the solid vermicompost used alone, for controlling both species. Vermicompost and the vermicompost teas had positive effects on plant fresh stem weight and stem height. The application of vermicompost tea instead of the solid vermicompost, substantially decreased the amount of material needed. These amendments are thus promising for the control of potato-cyst nematodes in sustainable agricultural systems.

Open access

Vladimír Šimanský and Peter Kováčik

Abstract

Sequestration of organic carbon in soils is an effective strategy to mitigate global climate change. Carbon sequestration leads to an increase in carbon stocks in soil, thereby reducing greenhouse gas emissions while improving soil quality and crop production. There are several published articles containing information in which the authors explain carbon sequestration in different soil types under different climatic conditions or farming systems, but on the other hand there is less information about carbon sequestration in water-stable aggregates. In field experiment, the manner in which different soil management practices influence carbon sequestration and its dynamics in water-stable aggregates was studied. We evaluated the soil samples taken from Haplic Luvisol (Dolná Malanta - Slovakia) from all treatments of tillage (conventional, minimal and grassland) and fertilisation (without fertilisation, crop residues together with NPK fertilisers and only NPK fertilisers). The maintenance of carbon concentration within soil under conventional tillage and in native grassland was due to an enhanced incorporation of new organic matter from the coarse fraction of particulate organic matter to macro-aggregates and in treatment with ploughed crop residue together with NPK fertilisers, there was besides of this caused by the reduction of carbon mineralisation from the fine fraction. Soil management practices have a significant effect on the re-distribution of soil organic matter in water-stable aggregates. In conventional and minimal tillage, very important sources of carbon sequestration are agronomical favourable size fractions of water-stable macro-aggregates and in native grassland, as well as in all fertiliser treatments, the most important source of carbon sequestration is water-stable micro-aggregates.

Open access

Peter Kováčik, Alžbeta Žofajová, Vladimír Šimanský and Klaudia Halászová

Abstract

The existence of a small number of publications dealing with the impact of solid sodium humate and lignite on the quantity and quality of grown crops was the reason for establishing the field experiment. The objective of this experiment was to detect the impact of solid lignite and solid sodium humate on the quantity and quality of spring barley yield. These substances were applied into the soil either independently or along with nitrogen fertiliser. The next objective was to determine the impact of foliar application of sodium humate water solution applied either independently or along with nitrogen fertiliser on the quality and quantity of spring barley yield. The achieved results showed that the autumn application of solid lignite and the presowing application of solid sodium humate into the soil tended to decrease the yield of both grain and straw of spring barley, crude protein content in grain, proportion of the first-class grains and volume weight of grain, whereas the impact of humate was more negative. Lignite and sodium humate in the solid form should be used along with nitrogen fertiliser. The application of sodium humate in liquid form during the growth season of barley tended to increase the yield of both grain and straw. The joint application of nitrogen and liquid sodium humate during the growth season of barley increased the grain yield of barley significantly. A lower dose of nitrogen, applied during the growth season of barley (growth season BBCH 23), increased the grain yield of barley considerably more than a higher N dose, applied into the soil before barley sowing.

Open access

Peter Kováčik, Peter Šalamún and Jadwiga Wierzbowska

Abstract

Many of the world’s findings indicate the positive effect of earthworms on soil parameters, and consequently, on the formation of phytomass of cultivated plants. In our experiment we studied: A) the influence of soil itself, soil mixed with vermicompost in a ratio of 9:1; B) the influence of earthworms number (genus Eisenia foetida, 10 and 20 individuals per pot) supplied to soil mixed with vermicompost in the ratio of 9:1 on the dynamics of changes in the weight of radish roots, the total chlorophyll content in leaves and the selected qualitative parameters of the roots. The results obtained showed that one tenth proportion of vermicompost from the total weight of soil substrate caused the statistically significant increase in the total chlorophyll content in leaves, the increase in yield of radish roots, the reduction of the vitamin C content and the increase of nitrate content in the roots. The impact of earthworms on the chlorophyll content in leaves and on the root weight was negative. The addition of 10 individuals of earthworms into 20 kg of substrate (soil + vermicompost) resulted in the increased content of vitamin C and the decreased content of nitrates in the radish roots. Twenty earthworms added to vermicompost, compared to vermicompost alone, did not affect the vitamin C content and reduced the nitrate content.

Open access

Anton Kovacik, Eva Tvrda, Diana Fulopova, Peter Cupka, Eva Kovacikova, Katarina Zbynovska and Peter Massanyi

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of different concentrations (500-7500 μg/mL) of gentamicin - GENT (aminoglycoside antibiotic) on the selected mammalian cell line (Vero - cell line from African green monkey kidney). Analysis of the cell morphological changes was microscopically evaluated (magnification × 400). Quantification of Ca, Mg and total proteins was performed using spectrophotometry on device Rx Monza (Randox). Quantification of Na, K and Cl was performed on the automatic analyzer EasyLyte. The cell viability was assessed using the metabolic mitochondrial MTT test. Vero cells were able to survive at concentrations of 500 (89.21 %), 1000 (79.54 %) and 2000 μg/mL (34.59 %). We observed statistically significant decrease of vital cell content at concentrations of 2000, 4500, 7500 μg/mL against control group. Vero cell line slightly reacted to the presence of GENT but total proteins and mineral parameters were not significantly affected. Vero cells were highly sensitive to GENT with a significant decrease of viability at concentrations of 2000 and 4500 μg/mL (P < 0.001). Our data reveal that GENT has a significant cytotoxic and adverse effect on the cell viability.

Open access

Peter Kováčik, Peter Šalamun, Sylwester Smoleń and Marek Renčo

Abstract

In Slovakia more than a half of the landfill‘s waste consist of the biodegradable waste (BDW). Therefore the BDW composting can decrease significantly the production of the landfill gas as well as the financial and space requirements for landfills. However, the composts production have to be solved comprehensively, including their rational usage. In Slovakia the use of composts is ineffective if the location of their production is farther than 50 km, because of the high tranportation costs. The objective of the experiments was to determine the ratio of vermicompost in the soil growing medium in order not to decrease the yield quantity and quality of radish - the most commonly grown vegetable in the gardens in Slovakia. Five shares of vermicompost were tested in the soil substrate (0%, 10%, 20%, 25% and 50%). The results show that 50% share of vermicompost in the soil substrate, i.e. the ratio of vermicompost to soil 1:1, was not the optimal solution of the vermicompost usage. However, even this quantity of vermicompost did not have a negative impact on the weight of the aboveground and underground phytomass in comparison with the treatment without vermicompost. 50% share of vermicompost in the growing medium had the negative impact on the qualitative parameters of radish. It decreased the content of vitamin C and increased the content of nitrates in radish roots and leaves. Along with the higher share of vermicompost in the growing medium, the content of vitamin C was decreased in radish roots and leaves, and the content of nitrates in radish roots was increased. The roots of the biggest diameter, and consequently the highest yield of radish roots and leaves was formed in the treatment where the soil substrate consisted of four portions of soil and one p ortion of vermicompost (20% proportion of vermicompost).

Open access

M. Renčo, N. Sasanelli and P. Kováčik

Abstract

A pot experiment on potato was carried out to verify the nematicidal effect of four composts of different origin (C1: 70 % horse manure + 15 % sugar beet pomace + 5 % poultry manure + 10% grape pomace; C2: 100 % pig manure decomposed by juveniles of Musca domestica; C3: 100 % vermicompost from medical plants wastes; C4: 100% vermicompost from cattle manure) on the potato cyst nematodes G. rostochiensis (Ro1) and G. pallida (Pa2 and Pa3). Composts at different rates (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 % w/w) were mixed with the nematode infested soils. Pots with unamended soils were used as control. Pots (4 l) were arranged in a glasshouse according to a randomized block design with four replications per each treatment. A significant reduction in number of cysts, eggs and juveniles/cyst and eggs and juveniles/g soil was observed in each compost in comparison to unamended soil. The suppressive nematode effect increased according to the compost NH4+ content and compost rate.

Open access

Tomas Kovacik, Rastislav Bencel, Jan Mato, Roman Bronis, Peter Truchly and Ivan Kotuliak

Abstract

TV watching dramatically changes with introduction of new technologies such as Internet-connected TVs, enriched digital broadcasting (DVB), on-demand content, additional programme information, mobile phones and tablets enabling multiscreen functions etc that offer added values to content consumers. In this paper we propose modular advanced TV platform and its enablers enhancing TV watching. They allow users to receive aside of EPG also additional information about broadcasted content, to be reminded of requested programme, to utilize recommendation and search features, thanks to multiscreen functionality to allow users to take watched content with them or transfer it onto another device. The modularity of the platform allows new features to be added in future.

Open access

Michaela Havrlentová, Andrea Hlinková, Alžbeta Žofajová, Peter Kováčik, Daniela Dvončová and Ľubomíra Deáková

Abstract

β-D-glucan is a soluble component of dietary fibre localised in the cell walls of cereal grains, especially oat and barley. This homopolysaccharide presents a wide spectrum of health-beneficial effects in human beings, and its higher concentration in oats makes it an essential component for human nutrition. Genetic and environmental factors influence the content of β-D-glucan. Four oat varieties (two naked and two hulled) were grown in experimental fields at Vígľaš-Pstruša (Central Slovakia) in two consecutive years (2007 and 2008). The experiment included five fertilisation treatments with application of nitrogen (N) (as ammonium nitrate with dolomite) before sowing, and with selenium (Se) at the end of the tilling period (in the form of sodium selenate). A higher average content of β-D-glucan and test weight were observed in naked oats, Avenuda and Detvan, compared with hulled Vendelin and Zvolen. By contrast, higher yield and thousand grains weight were detected in hulled oats. Fertilisation with N + Se increased the content of β-D-glucan, but significantly only in hulled oat grains. The warmer and drier climate in the year 2007 did not influence the content of β-D-glucan in oats, but caused a significant increase in thousand grains weight and test weight in both oat varieties, as well as grain yield in naked oats.