The growing development of settlements in mountainous areas and their sustainable development constantly requires new approaches to assess the land in terms of occurrence of landslides. The flysch zone, where the monitored area is located, is one of the most landslide prone areas in Slovakia. Landslides respond sensitively to the quality of the individual factors that form the landscape and to the change of natural conditions. Their occurrence is a geo-barrier that reduces or totally prevents the use of natural environment and negatively affects the life of population and territorial development. The reason for the increased hazard of landslides is not only demographic pressure on territories, but also its poor management. Consistent spatial planning addresses not only the spatial layout but also the functional use of the territory. Landslides represent one of the limits of land use. This study is based on the assessment of landsliding as a limit to possible territorial development. The input parameters for the assessment were elements of the current landscape structure (built up structure, forest stands, transitional woodland-shrubs, traditional agricultural land, permanent grasslands and arable land) and occurring landslides (active, potential and stabilized). On most of the determined elements of the landscape, landslides occur on about a quarter of their area. They have a smaller share only in areas of mixed forests, built up areas and have the smallest share on arable land. Potential landslides have the largest proportion on all landscape elements. They occupy the largest areas on coniferous forests (1578.93 ha) and on permanent grasslands (741.33 ha). By evaluating the overall endangerment of the area by landslides according to the degree of threat, we found that the greatest threat of landslides is in the Skalité and Svrčinovec cadastral areas, the smallest threat is in the Čadca cadastral area. In addition to the danger of landsliding in the individual elements of the landscape, we have also set limits for its development. Spatial planning limits have been divided into two categories according to the sectors they affect the most: limiting the development of an area assigned for residential building, or restricting the development of an area designed for agricultural and forestry purposes.
Territory of Kysuce is characterised by a high proportion of the traditional agricultural landscape (TAL), which occupy almost 12% of the area. Two types of TAL were allocated here. The first type is represented by TAL with dispersed settlement. The second type is represented by TAL of arable land and grassland landscape. The largest representation has typical forms of anthropogenic relief (FAR). TALs represent the most diverse mosaic of man-made habitats and natural habitats too. In the past, there were the largest representations of arable land and regularly mown meadows. Currently, these areas are dominated by abandoned meadows (fallow meadows), occasionally grazed pastures and meadows. Arable land is represented only minimally. The large part of areas is overgrown by non-forest woody vegetation or passes to the forest vegetation. In this process of landscape changes, significant changes in biodiversity of the areas are realised. Successively, the species of segetal and ruderal vegetation are less represented and species of forest vegetation obtained greater representation. In the process of mapping and evaluation, FAR - shape and orientation of plots, types of balks and some of their basic characteristics - were monitored.
Traditional agricultural landscapes (TAL) are landscapes in which primarily traditional sustainable agricultural practices are currently carried out and where biological diversity is conserved thereby. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the extension of traditional landscape structures and their relationship to geological substrate and slope processes (landslides). The evaluation was concentrated on two types of TAL (extended to Kysuce region): TAL with dispersed settlements (subtype 1a and b) and TAL of arable-land, grasslands and pastures (subtype 4a and b). Localities with typical dispersed settlements of subtype 1a mostly occur on Zlin formation and cover 707.9 ha. On the deluvial formation, this type extends to 531.8 ha and on the Solaň formation, to 403.6 ha. The active landslides are mostly represented in the TAL of subtype 4a (cadastral areas of Čadca and Oščadnica villages), of subtype 4b (cadastral areas of Riečnica and Svrčinovec villages) and of subtype 1a (cadastral area of Svrčinovec village). The largest representation of potential landslides is on the subtype 4a, subtype 1a and subtype 4b.
Ďugova O., Barančokova M., Krajči J., Barančok P.: Soil micromycetes and vegetation changes associated with vegetative cover destruction on chosen localities of Tatry Mountains - first approach. Ekologia (Bratislava), Vol. 32, No. 2, p. 158-172, 2013.
Species composition of soil micromycetes and vegetation and its changes associated with vegetative cover destruction were observed in four localities of Tatry Mts. Three research plots with different extent of vegetation destruction on each locality were subjectively chosen: control plots with almost no destruction of vegetation and soil cover (C), partially disturbed plots (B) and plots with high level of soil cover destruction where cover of herb layer was less than 20% (A). Plant species composition of control plots was characterised by the highest level of taxonomical diversity, highest cover of herb and moss layer and represented by alpine herb and grass communities on siliceous bedrock (Juncion trifidi alliance) and alpine and subalpine plant communities on calcareous bedrock (Seslerion tatrae alliance). Devastation of soil and vegetation on B and A plots was performed particularly by decreasing of herb layer cover and changes in species composition: species as Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Calluna vulgaris were absent, whereas Poa alpina, Potentilla aurea, Agrostis rupestris or Avenella flexuosa occurred on devastated plots often. From investigated soils 43 species of soil micromycetes were identified. Control plot of each locality was represented by the highest taxonomical diversity of soil micromycetes. The number of species significantly decreased on plots with successive destruction of vegetation cover (B and A). Several species were identified in just one case (Penicillium digitatum (pers.:Fr.) Sacc., Chrysosporium keratinophilum D.Frey ex J.W. Carmich. etc.). The outcomes showed that soil microorganisms as well as vascular plants react on destruction of soil cover very sensitively.
Vegetation of the ski slopes in the Low Tatras National Park in Slovakia was evaluated through the environmental variables and species composition caused by human impact assessment. We compared the grasslands located on pistes, off pistes and on the edge of pistes, and within these we also recorded the grassland management. The results show that the majority of study areas managed by transport of sod clippings has reached the lowest number of species; contrariwise, the grasslands with no management are characterized by the highest number of species. Areas on pistes managed by cutting correlates positively with the bare ground. Cover of mosses positively correlates with the total cover and areas with no management. Total of 17 synanthropic plant species and 2 nonnative species as the indicator of human interventions were noticed. They occurred particularly on the edge areas but also in the surroundings of the off piste areas.