Formalization of Evidence: A Comparative Study
This article analyzes and compares several approaches of formalizing the notion of evidence in the context of general-purpose reasoning system. In each of these approaches, the notion of evidence is defined, and the evidence-based degree of belief is represented by a binary value, a number (such as a probability), or two numbers (such as an interval). The binary approaches provide simple ways to represent conclusive evidence, but cannot properly handle inconclusive evidence. The one-number approaches naturally represent inconclusive evidence as a degree of belief, but lack the information needed to revise this degree. It is argued that for systems opening to new evidence, each belief should at least have two numbers attached to indicate its evidential support. A few such approaches are discussed, including the approach used in NARS, which is designed according to the considerations of general-purpose intelligent systems, and provides novel solutions to several traditional problems on evidence.
To solve a problem, an ordinary computer system executes an existing program. When no such program is available, an AGI system may still be able to solve a concrete problem instance. This paper introduces a new approach to do so in a reasoning system that adapts to its environment and works with insuffcient knowledge and resources. The related approaches are compared, and several conceptual issues are analyzed. It is concluded that an AGI system can solve a problem with or without a problem-specific program, and therefore can have human-like creativity and exibility.
Kai Wang, Zhihua Pei and Guixue Hu
To improve our understanding of Feline calicivirus (FCV) infection in cats in Northeast China, 1584 serum samples from 974 domestic cats and 610 stray cats were collected between 2012 and 2015. The samples were tested for FCV antibodies using a commercially available ELISA kit. The results revealed an overall seroprevalence of 37.56% (595/1584), a seroprevalence in domestic cats of 32.85% (320/974) and a seroprevalence in stray cats of 45.08% (275/610). Risk factor analysis indicated that species was the only risk factor for the presence of FCV (OR=1.678, 95% CI=1.362-2.066, P<0.001); age, season, region and gender were not risk factors. This is the first report of FCV infection in stray cats in China, and the results of this study can aid in FCV infection control in the felidae family.
Kristinn R. Thórisson, Eric Nivel, Ricardo Sanz and Pei Wang
Cong-er Wang and Pei-hua Zhang
Biodegradable intravascular stent has attracted more and more focus in recent years as an effective solution for angiostenosis. Ideal stents were expected to exhibit sufficient radial force to support the vascular wall, while suitable flexibility for the angioplasty. After vascular remodeling, stents should be degraded into small molecular and be eliminated from human body, causing no potential risk. In this paper, poly-p-dioxanone (PDO) monofilament was braided into net structure with four different braiding density, two of which exhibited sufficient radial force larger than 30 kPa, and three of which showed the bending rigidity within 11.7–88.1 N•mm2. The degradation behaviors of monofilaments and stents have been observed for 16 weeks. The findings obtained indicate that degradation first occurred in morphology region, which induced temporary increase of crystallinity, monofilament bending rigidity and stent mechanical properties. During this period, monofilament tends to be hard and brittle and lost its tensile properties. Then the crystalline region was degraded and stent mechanical properties decreased. All the results reveal that the PDO intravascular stents with braided structure were able to afford at least 10 weeks of sufficient support to the vascular wall.
Kai Wang, Yu Qi, Shushuai Yi, Zhihua Pei, Na Pan and Guixue Hu
Introduction: The aim of the experiment was to establish the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (ETEC K88)-induced BALB/c mouse duodenum inflammation model. Material and Methods: Mice were administered different concentrations of E. coli K88 (1.0 × 107-109 CFU/mL) for 3 d by means of an esophageal catheter. Results: The results showed that the treated group expressed several significant clinical symptoms, such as reduced dietary demands and weight loss, an increased presence of IL-1α, TNF-α, and MPO in the peripheral blood, and some pathological changes in the duodenum. On the 6th-8th days, the body weight of the mice was the lowest. On the 8th day, there were significant differences in IL-1α, TNF-α, and MPO levels compared to the control group (P < 0.05), the gap between the duodenum mucous layer and the muscular layer had widened, the number of goblet cells was increased, and the inflammatory infiltrate and inflammation changes in the lamina propria and the mucous layer were the most obvious. Conclusion: The duodenum inflammation was the most severe on day 8; thus, the model was successfully established. In addition, varying concentrations of ETEC K88 did not significantly influence the duodenum inflammation (P > 0.05).
Jin Zhao, Zhong Guo, Hong Zhang, Zhenhua Wang, Lei Song, Jianxiu Ma, Shuyan Pei and Chenjing Wang
Background. Carbon ions (12C6+) are high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation characterized by higher relative biological effectiveness than low LET radiation. The assessment of tumour radiosensitivity would be particularly useful in optimizing the radiation dose during radiotherapy. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the potential value of the neutral comet assay and γH2AX foci assay in assessing 12C6+ radiosensitivity of tumour cells.
Materials and methods. The doses of 12C6+ and X-rays used in the present study were 2 and 4 Gy. The survival fraction, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and repair kinetics of DSB were assayed with clonogenic survival, neutral comet assay and γH2AX foci assay in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells, hepatoma HepG2 cells, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma MEC-1 cells at the time points of 0.5, 4, 16 and 24 h after 12C6+ and X-rays irradiation.
Results. The survival fraction for 12C6+ irradiation was much more inhibited than for X-rays (p < 0.05) in all three tumour cell lines tested. Substantial amounts of residual damage, assessed by the neutral comet assay, were present after irradiation (p < 0.05). The highest residual damage was observed at 0.5 or 4 h, both for 12C6+ and X-ray irradiation. However, the residual damage in HeLa and MEC-1 cells was higher for 12C6+ than X-rays (p < 0.05). The strongest induction of γH2AX foci was observed after 30 min, for all three tumour cell lines (p < 0.01). The franction of γH2AX foci persisted for at least 24 h after 12C6+ irradiation; in HeLa cells and MEC-1 was higher than after X-ray irradiation (p < 0.05). The correlation coefficients between the clonogenic survival, neutral comet assay and γH2AX foci assay were not statistically significant, except for some tumour cells at individual irradiation doses and types.
Conclusions. Our study demonstrated that the neutral comet assay and γ-H2AX foci assay could be used to assess the radiosensitivity of 12C6+ in human tumour cells.
L. Pei, Y. Pei, Y. Yang, Y. Dong, S. Wang, C. Fan, Taike Duan and Qian-Feng Zhang
Copper germanate (CuGeO3) nanowires have been synthesized by the hydrothermal deposition process using GeO2 and copper foil as the resource as well as the deposition substrate. The factors including hydrothermal temperature, pressure and duration of the process were investigated in order to analyze the processing parameters that control the formation process, morphology and size of the nanowires. The dependence of the nanowires properties on the growth conditions shows that the CuGeO3 nanowires can be synthesized in a large range of different hydrothermal parameters from 400 °C to 250 °C. The hydrothermal pressure has an important effect on the formation and growth of the CuGeO3 nanowires. The CuGeO3 nanowires exhibit good electrochemical cyclic voltammetry characteristics owing to offering many advantages in sensing applications including their small size, high aspect ratio and conductance.
Yang He, Vijaya Pasapula, Xiang Li, Ran Lu, Bei Niu, Pei Hou, Yi Wang, Ying Xu and Fang Chen Chen
An efficient system for Agrobacterium tumefaciensmediated transformation of Jatropha curcas was developed in this study. Several factors affecting the transformation efficiency were optimized, including the explant type, preculture and coculture periods, usage of acetosyringone and density of A. tumefaciens. Compared with other explants, 2-day precultured and cocultured hypocotyl explants showed a significant GUS transient expression efficiency (67.7%). Moreover, adding AS showed a remarkable increase in transformation efficiency. After infecting with A. tumefaciens, hypocotyl explants were subjected to expansion and proliferation on MS medium with 1.0 mg· l-1 IBA and 0.5 mg· l-1 BA. Transformants were demonstrated by the GUS assay and PCR analysis. Rate of hypocotyl explants forming resistant calli reached 67.08%. Furthermore, in the transformed calli development, morphologic changes (calli superficial development and internal structure) were observed by SEM and LM. The present study has provided a fundamental information and research approach for the future study of inducing new traits to J. curcas and genetic modification.