The article describes the methodology and results of investigations of the flow of oil and HFA-E emulsion in flat gaps of the working mechanism of a satellite motor. The flow of liquid in those gaps is turbulent and not fully developed. The article presents two methods of modelling this flow. Method I makes use of the Darcy-Weisbach formula, while Method II bases on the assumption that in the variable-length gaps the flow is turbulent in the area where the length is the smallest and laminar where the length is the largest. Consequently, the flow in such gaps can be modelled as the sum of laminar and turbulent flows. The results obtained in the experiment have made the basis for calculating relevant coefficients and assessing the proportion of turbulence in the flow modelled using both methods
In this paper mechanical losses in a positive displacement pump supplied with water and mineral oil (two liquids having significantly different viscosity and lubricating properties) are described and compared. The experimental tests were conducted by using a prototype satellite pump of a special design. The design of the satellite pump is presented in the article. The pump features and a non-circular tooth working mechanism was developed to work with both water and mineral oil. The sources of mechanical losses in such pump are also characterized in this paper. On this basis, a mathematical model of the losses has been developed and presented. The results of the calculation of mechanical losses according to the model are compared with the results of the experiment. The experimental studies have shown that the mechanical losses in the water pump are even 2.8 times greater than those in the oil pump. It has been demonstrated that the mathematical model well describes the mechanical losses both in the water pump and the oil pump. It has been found that the results from the loaded pump simulation (at Δp=25MPa) differ from the results of the experiment by no more than 5% both for oil and water.
In this paper, volumetric losses in a positive displacement pump supplied with water and mineral oil are described and compared. The experimental tests were conducted using a prototype of a satellite pump (with a non-circular tooth working mechanism). In this paper, the sources of volumetric losses in this pump are characterized. On this basis, a mathematical model of these losses has been presented. The results of the calculation of volumetric losses according to the model are compared with the results of the experiment. Experimental studies have shown that the volumetric losses in the water pump are even 3.2 times greater than the volumetric losses in the oil pump. It has been demonstrated that the mathematical model describing the volumetric losses both in the water pump and in the oil pump is quite good. It has been found that the results from the loaded pump simulation (at ∆p=25MPa and ant n=1500rpm) differ from the results of the experiment by no more than 5% both for oil and water.
In this paper volumetric losses in hydraulic motor supplied with water and mineral oil (two liquids having significantly different viscosity and lubricating properties) are described and compared. The experimental tests were conducted using an innovative hydraulic satellite motor, that is dedicated to work with different liquids, including water. The sources of leaks in this motor are also characterized and described. On this basis, a mathematical model of volumetric losses and model of effective rotational speed have been developed and presented. The results of calculation of volumetric losses according to the model are compared with the results of experiment. It was found that the difference is not more than 20%. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that this model well describes in both the volumetric losses in the motor supplied with water and oil. Experimental studies have shown that the volumetric losses in the motor supplied with water are even three times greater than the volumetric losses in the motor supplied with oil. It has been shown, that in a small constant stream of water the speed of the motor is reduced even by half in comparison of speed of motor supplied with the same stream of oil.
The article describes the flow rates of mineral oil and water flowing, as working media, through the commutation unit of a hydraulic satellite motor. It is demonstrated that geometrical dimensions of commutation unit clearances change as a function of the machine shaft rotation angle. Methods for measuring the rate of this flow and the pressure in the working chamber are presented. The results of pressure measurements in the working chamber during the transition from the filling cycle to the emptying cycle are included. The pressure in the motor’s working chamber changes linearly as a function of the shaft rotation angle, which has a significant effect on the leakage in the commutation unit clearances. The paper presents new mathematical formulas in the form: Q=f(Δpγ) to calculate the flow rate of water and mineral oil in the commutation unit clearances. The γ factor is described as a function of fluid viscosity and clearance length (the motor shaft rotation angle). The coefficients used in these formulas were determined based on the results of laboratory tests of a motor supplied with water and mineral oil.
This article analyzes rate-of-return and risk related to investments in socially responsible and conventional country indices. The socially responsible indices are the DJSI Korea, DJSI US and Respect Index, and the corresponding conventional country indices are the Korea Stock Exchange Composite KOSPI, Dow Jones Industrial Average and WIG20TR. We conclude that investing in the analyzed SRI indices do not yield systematically better results than investing in the respective conventional indices, both in terms of neoclassical risk and return rate.
This finding suggest that socially responsible investing should be assessed in terms of behavioral economics related to the psycho-social features of investors, rather than to simplified rational choices (based only on the risk and return rate analysis) that neoclassical economics assumes.
Przemysław Śliwiński, Zygmunt Hasiewicz and Paweł Wachel
A simple semi-recursive routine for nonlinearity recovery in Hammerstein systems is proposed. The identification scheme is based on the Haar wavelet kernel and possesses a simple and compact form. The convergence of the algorithm is established and the asymptotic rate of convergence (independent of the input density smoothness) is shown for piecewise- Lipschitz nonlinearities. The numerical stability of the algorithm is verified. Simulation experiments for a small and moderate number of input-output data are presented and discussed to illustrate the applicability of the routine.