The combat potential of future warships will be directly related to the use of modern electronic devices being parts of advanced systems, such as, for instance, radar systems, fire aiming systems, fire detection systems, electric drive systems, and even electronic and radio-electronic weaponry, railguns and lasers, installed on these warships. The capacity and functionality of these devices is continually increasing, at decreasing mass and dimensions, which results in higher power consumption. Heat collection becomes a growing problem in operation of these devices.
The paper presents a concept of the use of the CPL (Capillary Pumped Loop) cycle for passive heat collection from precise electronic devices used on warships. It also includes the description of the experimental rig and discussion of the results of laboratory tests performed on this rig and confirmed using the mathematical model developed by the authors.
Article presents the results of the effect of humidity on early shrinkage of normal concrete with variable W/C ratio. As known for a long time, shrinkage is dependent of many factors. One of them is the W/C ratio and the quantity of water which is located in the concrete mix. In article there were discussed changes taking place in the concrete mix, the methods of research and the partial results obtained by the authors of the paper. Shrinkage is a phenomenon well known and studied by various research centers. The total amount of shrinkage may depend on various factors such as humidity, temperature, composition of the concrete mix, the W/C ratio, the size of the item. The study was conducted to determine the amount of shrinkage in its early stages. It is very important for concrete floors contractors, precast manufacturers to start at the right time finishing work and prevent the formation of shrinkage cracks.
Farmland landscapes are recognized as important ecosystems, not only for their rich biodiversity but equally so for the human beings who live and work in these places. However, biodiversity varies among sites (spatial change) and among seasons (temporal change). In this work, we tested the hypothesis that bird diversity hotspots distribution for breeding is congruent with bird diversity hotspots for wintering season, focusing also the representation of protected areas for the conservation of local hotspots. We proposed a framework based on the use of species richness, functional diversity, and evolutionary distinctiveness to characterize avian communities.
Although our findings show that the spatial distribution of local bird hotspots differed slightly between seasons, the protected areas’ representation was similar in both seasons. Protected areas covered 65% of the most important zones for breeding and 71% for the wintering season in the farmland studied. Functional diversity showed similar patterns as did bird species richness, but this measure can be most effective for highlighting differences on bird community composition. Evolutionary distinctiveness was less congruent with species richness and functional diversity, among seasons.
Our findings suggest that inter-seasonal spatial congruence of local hotspots can be considered as suitable areas upon which to concentrate greater conservation efforts. However, even considering the relative congruence of avian diversity metrics at a local spatial scale, simultaneous analysis of protected areas while inter-seasonally considering hotspots, can provide a more complete representation of ecosystems for assessing the conservation status and designating priority areas.
To study the seasonal changes in avian communities, we collected data in an extensively used farmland in Western Poland during 2006-2013. Generalized additive mixed models were used in order to study the effects of seasonality and protected areas on the overall bird species richness. A similarity percentage analysis was also conducted in order to identify the species that contribute most strongly to dissimilarity among each bird according to the phenological season. Furthermore, the differences in bird communities were investigated applying the decomposition of the species richness in season, trend, and remainder components. Each season showed significant differences in bird species richness (seasonality effect). The effect of the protected areas was slightly positive on the overall species richness for all seasons. However, an overall negative trend was detected for the entire period of eight years. The bird community composition was different among seasons, showing differences in terms of dominant species. Greater differences were found between breeding and wintering seasons, in particular, the spatial pattern of sites with higher bird richness (hotspots) were different between breeding and wintering seasons. Our findings showed a negative trend in bird species richness verified in the Polish farmlands from 2006. This result mirrors the same negative trend already highlighted for Western Europe. The role of protected areas, even if slightly positive, was not enough to mitigate this decline process. Therefore, to effectively protect farmland birds, it is necessary to also consider inter-seasons variation, and for this, we suggest the use of medium-term temporal studies on bird communities’ trends.