The aim of this paper was to characterize soil particle-size distribution (PSD) of in the middle part of young glacial Łyna River valley in relation to parent materials, soil forming processes and slope position. The study comprised rusty soils, arenosols, clay-illuvial soils, colluvial and alluvial soils located in four slope position: summit / midslope, footslope / toeslope, upper and lower part of floodplain. In order to describe the sedimentological environment and possible heterogenity of the soil formations, sedimentological and granulometric indices were calculated. The relationships between soil fractions in A horizons and environmental variables (slope position and depth of A horizon) were determined using principal component analysis (PCA).
The studied soils were poorly sorted with various values of skewness of granulometric distribution (symmetrical, fine and very fine skewed) and kurtosis (mainly very leptokurtic). The value of mean grain diameter was decreasing with slope position which may suggest high dynamics and energy of sedimentological environment in the middle part of Łyna River valley. The analysis of granulometric indices revealed that colluvial deposits were the most homogenous and alluvial formations were the most heterogenous. The results of the statistical analysis showed a positive correlation of the amounts of clay and silt fractions with depth of A horizons. The factor responsible for variability of these fractions was the position on the slope. The A horizons in soils located at the summit and footslope had the highest amounts of sand fractions. While significant increase in the share of finer fractions in soils located in the floodplain was noted.
Several shallow lakes have been drained to make way for additional arable land or pasture in the Mazurian Lakeland (NE Poland) since the 19th century. As a result of these hydrotechnical works, the water level usually decreased by approximately 6 m. Bottom sediments of the former lakes were transformed into surface limnic soils. Part of them, developed from highly calcareous gyttja, may be called limnic rendzinas. However, the present position of these soils in the Polish Soil Classification is unclear. Where the lake has undergone a natural terrestrialisation, the gyttja is covered with peat and mursh. The raw gyttja soils differ in type of organic matter forming the topsoil horizon and are subject to further transformation, the direction of which depends on the sequence of sediments in the profile, mursh formation, mineral admixture and adjoining colluvial phenomena. Common features of all these soils are high content of calcium carbonate in the surface horizons, alkaline reaction, high groundwater level and periodical flooding. The paper presents the variability of limnic rendzinas based on many examples from the Mazurian Lakeland (NE Poland). Finally, new type additions were suggested to the next edition of the Polish Soil Classification.
Mirosław Orzechowski, Sławomir Smólczyński, Paweł Sowiński and Beata Rybińska
The objective of the work was to investigate hydrophobic properties of soil formations with various amounts of organic matter and occurring in young glacial landscape. The research was carried out in mineral, mineral-organic and organic (slightly and strongly silted mucks, sedge peat, alder wood peat, reed peat) soil formations. Water repellency is very important in soil protection. It favors the formation of stable aggregates and prevents from soil erosion. The study was carried out applying two methods . water drop penetration time test (WDPT) and alcohol percentage test (AP). Among 51 analyzed soil samples in WDPT test, 64.7% of mineral and mineral-organic soil formations were hydrophilic. Among organic soil formations 37.6% was slightly and strongly hydrophobic and they represented strongly silted mucks. Unsilted and slightly silted mucks, weakly and strongly decomposed peats, were very strongly (18.8%) and extremely (43.6%) hydrophobic. AP test showed that strongly silted mucks were moderately and very strongly hydrophobic. Slightly silted mucks, and peats were very strongly and extremely hydrophobic. It can be stated that water repellency decreases simultaneously with the degree of siltation of organic soil formations.
Mirosław Orzechowski, Jacek Długosz, Sławomir Smólczyński, Barbara Kalisz, Paweł Sowiński and Paweł Urbanowicz
The paper presents the impact of UGmax enricher on soil physical and water retention properties. The experiment was established in 2005 in a 2 ha field 9 km from Lidzbark Warmiński in the village of Budniki. The studied soils were classified as Cambisols and Luvisols (IUSS Working Group WRB 2015), and they were formed from glaciolimnic deposits. Soil bulk density, soil particle density, texture, total porosity and water retention properties using low and high-pressure chambers were determined. The use of UGmax enricher on loamy soils used as arable lands in temperate climate of north-eastern Poland caused significant decrease of soil bulk density, increase of available water capacity and readily available water capacity. Statistically significant differences between examined soil properties were observed in most studied years.
Cezary Kabała, Przemysław Charzyński, Jacek Chodorowski, Marek Drewnik, Bartłomiej Glina, Andrzej Greinert, Piotr Hulisz, Michał Jankowski, Jerzy Jonczak, Beata Łabaz, Andrzej Łachacz, Marian Marzec, Łukasz Mendyk, Przemysław Musiał, Łukasz Musielok, Bożena Smreczak, Paweł Sowiński, Marcin Świtoniak, Łukasz Uzarowicz and Jarosław Waroszewski
The sixth edition of the Polish Soil Classification (SGP6) aims to maintain soil classification in Poland as a modern scientific system that reflects current scientific knowledge, understanding of soil functions and the practical requirements of society. SGP6 continues the tradition of previous editions elaborated upon by the Soil Science Society of Poland in consistent application of quantitatively characterized diagnostic horizons, properties and materials; however, clearly referring to soil genesis. The present need to involve and name the soils created or naturally developed under increasing human impact has led to modernization of the soil definition. Thus, in SGP6, soil is defined as the surface part of the lithosphere or the accumulation of mineral and organic materials permanently connected to the lithosphere (through buildings or permanent constructions), coming from weathering or accumulation processes, originated naturally or anthropogenically, subject to transformation under the influence of soil-forming factors, and able to supply living organisms with water and nutrients. SGP6 distinguishes three hierarchical categories: soil order (nine in total), soil type (basic classification unit; 30 in total) and soil subtype (183 units derived from 62 unique definitions; listed hierarchically, separately in each soil type), supplemented by three non-hierarchical categories: soil variety (additional pedogenic or lithogenic features), soil genus (lithology/parent material) and soil species (soil texture). Non-hierarchical units have universal definitions that allow their application in various orders/types, if all defined requirements are met. The paper explains the principles, classification scheme and rules of SGP6, including the key to soil orders and types, explaining the relationships between diagnostic horizons, materials and properties distinguished in SGP6 and in the recent edition of WRB system as well as discussing the correlation of classification units between SGP6, WRB and Soil Taxonomy.