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Open access

Mariusz Kormanek, Jacek Banach and Paweł Sowa

Abstract

The paper presents the results of an analysis of the influence of soil bulk density in a forest nursery plot on the growth and quality parameters of Scots pine and European beech seedlings. Particular density variants were obtained using a tractor device exerting controlled pressure on the soil, while field examinations were performed on an area of ‘Kłaj’ forest nursery in Niepołomice Forest District. Three series of plots were prepared for each species, applying a unit pressure of the values of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 kPa, corresponding to the dry bulk density in the range of 1.03-1.19 g cm-3, and control plots without the pressure. Seeds of the examined species were sown on the prepared plots, and after 6 months of growth the seedlings were subjected to biometric analysis determining differentiation in root neck diameter, length of the above-ground part and root system, as well as dry mass of particular parts of the plant. The quality of the seedlings was also determined using the method of Schmidt-Vogt. The results obtained show that the change in dry bulk density soil significantly affected most of the growth parameters of the examined seedlings. Especially high negative correlations were obtained for the length and dry mass of the root system. A significant influence of dry bulk density variant on all growth parameters of Scots pine seedlings, and on some parameters of European beech was demonstrated. An increase in soil bulk density clearly caused also a deterioration of European beech seedlings quality

Open access

Michalina Krzyżak, Katarzyna Piotrowska, Dominik Maślach, Paweł Sowa, Bartosz Pędziński, Paweł Macek and Jan Karczewski

Abstract

The purpose of the study was a comparative analysis of the burden of lung cancer in urban and rural areas in the Świętokrzyskie Province in the years 1999–2010. The material for the study accounted for information about the number of new cases of lung cancer obtained from the Świętokrzyskie Cancer Registration Office in Kielce and data from the Central Statistical Office concerning the number of deaths due to lung cancer in the years 1999–2010. Crude and age-standardized incidence, mortality, and potential years of life lost rates were calculated separately for groups of men and women in urban and rural areas. A comparative analysis of coefficients in urban and rural areas based on Rate Ratio (RR) and Rate Difference (RD) was performed by using the Health Disparities Calculator. The average annual incidence of lung cancer among men was 18% lower in the urban population than in the rural, while the mortality rate was 16% lower. For women, the incidence and mortality rates were higher in urban areas as opposed to rural areas – by 48% and 54% respectively. The comparative analysis of the burden of lung cancer showed great diversity between urban and rural populations in the Świętokrzyskie Province.

Open access

Dorota Huzarska, Joanna Huzarska, Leonard Pędziński, Paweł Sowa and Andrzej Szpak

Abstract

Introduction. Transplantation surgery, involving transplantation of cells, tissues and organs, constitutes a common medical practice that saves the lives of a great number of patients.

Aim. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a comparative analysis of the legal regulations regarding transplantation that are in practice inside three European countries: Poland and Germany - EU Member States - and Switzerland - a non-EU state. The considerations made herein are meant to find an answer to the question whether the provisions of law regarding transplantation in the specified European countries regulate the legal situation of the donor and the recipient in a similar manner.

Material and methods. The paper is based on the following source documents: The Cell, Tissue and Organ Recovery, Storage and Transplantation Act of July 1, 2005; The Act on Donation, Recovery and Transplantation of Organs and Tissues of November 5, 1997 (Transplantation Act - TPG); Federal Act on Transplantation of Organs, Tissues and Cells of October 8, 2004. In our work, we applied two methods, the first being comparative, and the second being dogmatic-legal. The latter consists of analyzing the provisions regarding transplantation as found within the three selected European countries.

Results and Discussion. Under Polish, German and Swiss law alike, the recovery of cells, tissues and organs is allowed from an adult, who, under the Polish and German Acts, has full capacity to enter into legal transactions, and who, under the Swiss Act - is an adult who is mentally competent. Of note is that a minor might only be a donor in ex vivo transplantation provided that precisely specified requirements are met. Of additional note is that, under the German and Swiss Acts, recovery of tissues and organs from a human cadaver donor is allowed only if this person gave consent for such recovery prior to their death; under the Polish Act, this is allowed unless the deceased person expressed their objection when alive.

Conclusion. As far as ex vivo transplantation is concerned, the legal solutions regarding transplantation in Poland, Germany and Switzerland regulate the legal situation of the donor and the recipient of a transplant in a similar way, although there are a few significant differences. As for ex mortuo transplantations - the legal solutions applied in each country greatly differ.

Open access

Paweł Sowa, Bartosz Pędziński, Michalina Krzyżak, Dominik Maślach, Sylwia Wójcik and Andrzej Szpak

Abstract

The development and widespread use of ICT in society are reflected by the way research is designed and conducted. The Computer Assisted Web Interview method is becoming more attractive and is a frequently used method in health sciences. The National Study of ICT Use in Primary Healthcare in Poland was conducted using this method. The aim of this paper is to present the major advantages and disadvantages of web surveys. Technical aspects of methodology and important stages of the aforementioned study, as well as key elements for its procedure, are mentioned. The authors also provide reflections based on their analysis of this national study, conducted between January and April 2014.

Open access

Bartosz Pędziński, Paweł Sowa, Waldemar Pędziński, Michalina Krzyżak, Dominik Maślach and Andrzej Szpak

Abstract

Despite the great expansion and many benefits of information and communication technologies (ICT) in healthcare, the attitudes of Polish general practitioners (GPs) to e-health have not been explored. The aim of this study was to determine the GPs’ perception of ICT use in healthcare and to identify barriers to the adoption of EMR (Electronic Medical Records) in the Podlaskie Voivodeship. Online and telephone surveys were conducted between April and May 2013. Responses from 103 GP practices, 43% of all practices in the region, were analysed. The results showed that 67% of the respondents agreed that IT systems improve quality of healthcare services. In the GP group who declared at least partial EMR implementation, 71.4% see the positive impact of IT on practice staff processes and 66.1% on personal working processes. In this group, more than three-quarters of GPs did not see any positive impact of ICT on the average number of patients treated per day, number of patients within the practice or scope of services. The four most common barriers to EMR implementation were: lack of funds, risk of a malfunction in the system, resistance to change, and lack of training and proper information. Although the use of ICT by Polish GPs is limited, their attitude to e-health is generally positive or neutral and resembles the overall pattern in Europe. Barriers identified by GPs need to be taken into account to ensure the effective implementation of e-health across the country.

Open access

Michalina Krzyżak, Dominik Maślach, Martyna Skrodzka, Katarzyna Florczyk, Anna Szpak, Bartosz Pędziński, Paweł Sowa and Andrzej Szpak

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to analyse the level and the trends of Potential Years of Life Lost due to the main causes of death in Poland in the years 2002-2011. The material for the study was the information from the Central Statistical Office on the number of deaths due to the main causes of death in Poland in the years 2002-2011. The premature mortality analysis was conducted with the use of the PYLL (Potential Years of Life Lost) indicator. PYLL rate was calculated following the method proposed by J. Romeder, according to which premature mortality was defined as death before the age of 70. Time trends of PYLL rate and the average annual percent change (APC - Annual Percent Change) were assessed using jointpoint models and the Joinpoint Regression Program. In the years 2002-2011, PYLL rate for all-cause deaths decreased by 7.0% among men and 8.1% among women. In 2011, the main reasons for PYLL among men were: external causes (27.6%), cardiovascular diseases (24.2%) and cancers (20.3%). Among women the leading causes were: cancers (41.1%), cardiovascular diseases (19.7%) and external causes (12.5%). PYLL rate increased among men for colorectal cancer, and among women for colorectal and lung cancer. The presented epidemiological situation for premature mortality in Poland shows that in the majority of cases it is caused by preventable deaths, which highlights a need to intensify measures in primary and secondary prevention.

Open access

Jacek P. Twardowski, Paweł K. Bereś, Michał Hurej, Zdzisław Klukowski, Zbigniew T. Dąbrowski, Sławomir Sowa and Roman Warzecha

Abstract

In the southern part of Poland, ground beetle fauna was studied in the first large-scale Bt maize experiment. The aim of this study was to determine the long term impact of the Bt maize cultivar in comparison to conventional plants, on selected non-target arthropods. The DKC 3421 YG cultivar (Bt maize) and the respective isogenic non-Bt varieties (DKC 3420) were cultivated at two locations: (a) Budziszów near Wrocław and in Głuchów near Rzeszów in the south-eastern region of Poland, in the 2008-2010 growing seasons. For comparative analysis, two additional non-Bt cultivars sprayed with a lambda-cyhalotrine insecticide were also included. To monitor population density of surface-active invertebrates of the Carabidae family, eighty pitfall traps were used at each location. The average number of ground beetle populations in the Bt-maize cultivar DKC 3421 YG did not significantly differ from the number of beetles in the conventional ones. Significant differences between the number of beetles occurred on individual dates only. Usually, these differences related to the considerably smaller total number of beetles in the whole replication. Probably, the variation in the number of beetles was caused by climatic factors or the terrain layout, therefore it cannot be related to the cultivar effect.